CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY
Membrane Structure and Composition
All cells are bounded by a plasma membrane, a thin phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are
interspersed and to which carbohydrates are attached on the outer surface. The phospholipids
CHAPTER 4 Notes
Nerve and muscle cells are excitable because they can rapidly alter their membrane
permeabilities and thus undergo transient membrane potential changes when excited.
Compared to resting potential, a membrane becomes depolarize
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY
Evolutionary Considerations and Invertebrate Nervous Systems
The nervous system is one of the two control systems of the body, the other being the endocrine
system. In general, the nervous system coordinates rapid responses, whereas the
CHAPTER 1 NOTES
Physiology is the study of biological functions, which at the highest level include selforganization, (homeostasis), and reproduction.
Physiology has two levels of scientific explanation for biological functions: the mechanist
Case Study 2: Enzyme kinetics: inhibition of Alcohol
Case adapted from Venkataramaiah, T.H., and Plapp, B.V. J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278,
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the enzyme that is responsible for converting ethan
Exposed to high levels of both carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide.
Exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide (or both).
Not exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide.
They are not mutually exclusive (disjoint
Chapter 3 Review
1) Consider the graph of the function f(x) below.
a) the open intervals where the function graphed is
b) the open intervals where the function graph is
c) the coordinates of all relative maxima
d) the coordinates of