INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
Editor and Primary Contributor: Erica L. Wildy
Major Contributors: Chris Kitting, Karen Evans,
Caroline Roth and William Roan
Department of Biological Sciences
California State University, East Bay
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Each has a health
EKG and Heart Rate
An electrocardiogram is a graphical recording of the electrical events occurring
within the heart. In a healthy heart there is a natural pacemaker in the right atrium,
which initiates an electrical sequence, the SA node. The
Clinical Blood Work
Blood is the only fluid tissue in the body. Blood has many functions including
distributing blood from the lungs to all of the bodys cells, transporting waste from
cells to elimination sites, and transporting hormones from
Urinalysis is a good diagnostic tool because you can see if there is a problem with
the kidneys. If there are certain cells or chemicals present in the blood that is an
indication that something is going wrong in the body. The pH of
Sleep is a state of partial unconsciousness from which a person can be aroused by
stimulation. Although, cortical functions are suppressed, brain stem functions like
breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure continue. There are t
Cardiovascular Fitness, Training Heart Rate
Blood pressure and pulse changes during and after exercise provide a good example
for measuring ones overall cardiovascular fitness. Although, there are more
accurate tests used by medical profession
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Measurement of lung volumes provides a tool for understanding normal function of the lungs as well as
disease states. The breathing cycle is initiated by expansion of the chest. Contraction of the diaphragm
1. * Living things are made of cells. * Living things obtain and use energy. * Living
things grow and develop. * Living things reproduce. * Living things respond to their
environment. * Living things adapt to their environment.
2. energy and knowledge
Biology eDiet Analysis (Lab)
To explore your metabolism you will be completing a diet analysis. Choose a nutrition assessment or
analysis tool that best fits your diet and the information requested on this sheet. You should analyze your
food intake for a
Bio 110 50507
July 5, 2010
For as long as I can remember I have always had a strong interest in science, the
science of the human anatomy to be more exact. Anything from hyper-human reactions to
human limits has intrigued me.
The Muscular System: Neuromuscular Junction
What insulates each muscle cell? Endomysium
Synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal of a motor neuron contain what
An action potential in the axon terminal of a motor
(a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer
Short polymer Unlinked monomer
Dehydration removes a water
molecule, forming a new bond. @
(b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer
Hydrolysis adds a water
molecule, breaking a bond.
A. Mutation versus Mutant (Genotype versus Phenotype)
1. Allele Defined
B. Beneficial Mutants
1. HIV Protection
C. Germline versus Somatic Mutations
1. Examples and Types (Missense, Silent, Nonsense, Insertion,
D. Importance of Muta
The Cell (A partial look)
A. Nucleus and Endomembrane System
A. Fluid Mosaic Model
B. Whats Embedded in the Membrane?
1. Integral and Peripheral Proteins
C. Extracellular Matrix
D. Membrane Permeability
A. Amino Acids
B. Levels of Protein Structure
1. The Difference between Polypeptides and Proteins
A. DNA versus RNA
C. Base Pairing
D. Anti-Parallel Strands
1. DNA Double Helix
F. Relationship of D
Size Exclusion Chromatography
Chromatography: Method use to separate individual components
from a complex mixture.
There are many different types of chromatography.
ex: Thin layer chromatography
Ion exchange chromatography
A gene is a segment of DNA that provides the instructions for the production of a protein
product that leads to a particular trait in an organism. Genetic transformation involves the
insertion of a gene (or genes) into an
Objective: View a prepared slide and determine the type of flagella present.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. Exercise 3-11 Bacterial Motility:
Flagella in Brief Microbiology Laboratory Theory
Objective: Learn how to prepare a bacterial smear and perform a negative stain.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. Exercise 3-5 Negative Stains in Brief
Microbiology Laboratory Theory and
Acid Fast Stain
Objective: Learn how to prepare an Acid Fast stain and learn what makes an Acid Fast bacteria positive
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. Exercise 3-7 Acid Fast Stains in Bri
Gelatin Hydrolysis Test
Objective: Determine which types of bacteria have the enzyme to break down gelatin.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. 5-14 Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Brief
Objective: To determine the effects of heat, steam and pressure on bacteria.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. 2-11 Steam Sterilization Brief
Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Appl
Environmental requirements: Effects of Osmotic Pressure
Objective: To determine the specific osmotic requirements for specified bacteria.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. 2-10 Effects of Osmotic Press
Enumeration and Spread Plate Count
Objective: Use Enumeration to determine the density of microbial population which provides and
estimate of actual living cells in the sample.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pier
Streak Plate Methods of Isolation
Objective: Learn how to prepare a streak plate and streak for isolated colonies.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. Exercise 1-5 Streak Plate for Methods
of Isolation i
Objective: Learn how to prepare a bacterial smear and perform a simple stain.
See lab manual: Leboffe, Michael J., Burton E. Pierce. 2012. Exercise 3-4 Simple Stains in Brief
Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Appli