Brief History of Treating Water before Drinking:
4000 BC: Filtration through charcoal, irradiation by sunlight, and boiling
Greek and Southeastern Indian documents.
1500 BC: Alum to clarify water.
Water Softening Treatment
A term often used to characterize the ability of a
water to cause soap scum
Ca2+ + (Soap)- Ca(Soap)2 (s)
Technically - the sum of all polyvalent cations
Practically - the amoun
Sedimentation is solid-liquid separation utilizing gravitational
settling to remove suspended solids.
Commonly found in water and wastewater treatment plants
because it is inexpensive, i.e. the driving force (
Understand the concepts of mass balance
Understand basic terminology used in
predicting concentrations of pollutants
Model pollution using mass balance
Conservation of Mass
French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, 1789
In ancient Greek and Sanskrit (India) writings dating
back to 2000 BC, there is mention of sand and gravel
filtration for water purification
500 BC, Hippocrates invented the practice of si
Coagulation and Flocculation
In this lesson we will answer the following questions:
How do coagulation and flocculation fit into the water treatment process?
Which chemicals are used in coagulation?
What factors influence coa
Introduction to Environmental
What is Engineering?
Engineering is a profession that applies science and
mathematics to make the properties of matter and
sources of energy useful in structures, machines,
products, systems, and pro
Most pathogenic bacteria are removed from water in
varying degrees during the different treatment processes
(coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration).
Disinfection is used in water treatment to reduce