Uses and Benefits of Post-Occupancy Evaluation
Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POEs) is the process of evaluating buildings in a systematic and rigorous
manner after they have been built and occupied for some time.
POEs are intended to compare systematically a
Attributes of technical elements continued.
Acoustical considerations are infrequently found in building codes.
There are however regulations governing sound in the workplace and the protection of workers exposed
to noisy environments.
History of POE
POE is said to have its name derived from the occupancy permit that is issued when a building is
completed, inspected and deemed safe according to building codes and regulations.
The first significant efforts at POE were made in the mid-196
Advantages of Measuring Performance
The concept of building performance is the major philosophical and theoretical foundation of POE.
POE = Statement of Building Performance
In the performance concept, the behaviors, qualities, and accomplishments of peop
Rational for POE
There are a number of important benefits which can be gained by conducting POEs.
These benefits constitute the rationale for conducting POEs.
The word rationale in this context means reason, justification or motive.
These benefits are as
The Building Process and The Performance Concept
The principles of the performance concept is applied to the building process using the principles of:
Buildings have attributes that are not typical of capital
Proxemics and Territoriality
Space is a basic concern in both architecture and the behavioral sciences.
Spatial attributes, the sequence, location, relationships, shape, size, and detail of spaces affect occupant
Territoriality refers to a cult
Phase 2 Conducting POE Steps
Initiating the on-site data-collection process:
To prepare the evaluation team and the client organization for on-site POE activities.
To coordinate the timing and location of POE activities in order to minimize disru
Phase 1: Planning the POE
Development of client contract.
Discussion of alternative levels of effort for POE.
Selection of appropriate POE level of effort.
Identification of liaison individuals.
Review of structure of client organization.
POE Phases & Steps
POEs are carried out by completing three phases, each involving a number of steps:
Phase 1 - Planning the POE:
The planning phase provides guidance for initiating and organizing the POE.
Phase 2 Conducting the POE:
The main tasks in con
The POE Process Model
While POE is a systematic and formal process, it can take place at different levels of effort.
The same building can be satisfactorily evaluated in a day or two, a month or two, or even several
In this lecture, we will presen
INTRODUCTION TO COST ESTIMATING
What is an Estimate?
hat is the Purpose of Estimating.
hat is the Role of the Estimator.
hat the Estimator Must Know?
he Components of an Estimate.
ossible Sources of Errors in Cost Estimates.
Procurement Phase Estimate
In this stage, an estimate would be prepared by all the contractors who are bidding for the construction
of the project, as well as the project team.
The contractors prepare the estimate to identify a price to bid.
The owner tea
Possible Sources of Errors in Estimates
1. Mistakes in material take-offs.
2. Errors in carrying forward material from quantity sheets to summary sheets and from there to direct
3. Mistakes in estimating the labor time required for certain it
After selecting the appropriate project type and quality value, the next step is to multiply the cost times
the appropriate number of units.
EX -Let us take the example of a 50-unit motel; assume a high quality (3/4) price, 1995 data:
Square foot Estimate Data
Advantages of the Assemblies Cost Data Book:
1. The reported costs are derived from actual projects that have been built around the country.
2. The costs have been localized to the national average.
3. These are true costs reflec
Other Market Conditions
In a market without much work, contractors may bid for a project with little profit to keep their staff
On complex projects, contractors may bid the work low in the hopes of making additional profit on
future change order
Equipment costs are the last element needed before assembling the estimate.
These costs are of two general types:
The cost of the equipment itself: including the cost of ownership, lease, or rental.
The cost of operating it: including the
With the quantity takeoff complete, the estimator has determined all the typical components that go
into the project and how many of each type are necessary.
The next task for the estimating team is to determine how much each unit will cost t
Quantity Takeoff- Measuring Quantities
The goal of the quantity takeoff process is to calculate every item of the project no more and no less.
To effectively accomplish this, the take off must utilize the correct units.
When quantifying the project, it is
Detailed estimates are typically prepared towards the end of the design phase, as they require precise
A detailed estimate which is prepared by the project team will be used to determine the fair cost for the