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Those two folklore forms are usually sang together and they are hard to sing.
- The French did the first European version of the Rababah. It was called
Rebec (Medieval instrument)
- Later on they kept on developing it till they reached the most refined
version that is the violin.
b-The Kamanjahs musical characteristics
Pearl fishermen's songs, or Fijri, of Kuwait, Qatar, and Bahrain employ
percussive sound in the form of complicated group hand clapping.
In these songs, a small double-sided hand-drum, known as the Mirwas, is
Another member of the pearl fishermen's
Forms and Genres In Arabic Music
In general, there are two sets of Forms in Arab countries:
1- Instrumental Forms: Those associated with instrumental compositions
2- Vocal Forms: Those connected with vocal music
C- Bashraf (Peshrev)
The Bashraf is an instrumental form that was invented by the Turks too.
The origin of the term Bashraf is Persian and it means moving forward or literally
al- thahaab ila al-amam.
Characteristics of Bashraf:
-Usually it is used as an
This is an improvisation in free rhythm within a certain framework, played on a solo
The Taqsim is played in a main mode (maqam), but its arabesques move into related
modes, and after the instrumentalist has displayed his skills he e
- The rhythm wahda kabira.
- The melodic phrase has the same length of the poetic phrase and they end together.
- It starts and ends on the same maqam even if there are modulations in the middle.
- The musical interludes are not part of the melody. They h
The Monologue form is a part of the musical theatre and usually the singer reviews the
events that happened before or talks about his concerns
Later on, the Monologue became a separate form and not only as a part of the musicals.
Chapter Five: Egyptian Music
Munira al-Mahdiya (1885-1965)
- Munira el Mahdiya was considered as a leading figure at
- She worked in theatre where she acquired her playing
technique and her lyrical talent as an actress and singer.
knowing that reciting the Koran was the most important thing
that every singer should learn. But she could sing the
hardest Qassaid after listening to all the masters of her time.
- She had a long breath and a two octaves voice which made
her able to sing
- He was the voice of 1919s revolution against the
His patriotic songs can be classified in 5 types:
1- Hymns with military rhythms and direct patriotic
2- Songs of different professions with patriotic
3- Ordinary song
composers like sheikh Abu el Ila Mohamad (who became her
teacher when she moved to Cairo in 1923 )and sheikh
- In 1924 she met Ahmad Rami the great poet, and the
dentist Ahmad sabri el-Nagridi who started teaching her how
to play the Ud bef
Her second life companion Zakaria Ahmad
His first composition for her was Elli 7abbek ya hanah in
He gave her great songs and Adwar.
Umm Kulthum presented 6 films:
Nashid el-Amal 1936
The characteristics of Umm Kulthums voice
6 elements made Umm Kulthums voice exceptional:
2-The mastery of her voice (the ornaments)
She used to sing easily very hard phrases.
3-The power of the voice
She did two films in her life:
- Intisar al-shabab (1941). Farid el-Atrash composed
all the songs of this film
- Gharam wa intiqam (1944).
Two of the most famous songs of Asmahan are:
Dakhalti marra fi ginina for Midhat Assem
Ya Habibi Taala of a Turkish
Folk Music (Folklore)
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A sad song fitting a single melody with a single maqam. The melody is composed on
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It is composed on the maqam Huzam. This folklore form requires long breath and it
shows the ability of the singer to ornament.
It is composed of two parts:
F- The Rababa
a- The Rababahs Characteristics
- The bedouin Rababah is probably the most important instrument
employed throughout this region
- The Rababah is capable of a side range of dynamic accents and
ornaments and it is the essential melody instrume
- It is made of reed.
In Levantine and Iraqi villages, certain wind instruments are inseparable
from wedding songs and dances:
- Minjayrah (Lebanese): the open-ended, end-blown reed flute.
- Shabbabah (Palestinian): the flute type with a limited melodic r
We can also find Mijana form without the alliteration:
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Like the Mijana, some people say that the Ataba form comes from Iraq. The meaning
of the word is from 0%
Differences between Ataba and Mijana:
a- Ataba doesn't have an introduction
Mijana has an introduction
b- Ataba ends with b or a( )or ()
Mijana ends with Na
c- Ataba is built on alliteration always
Mijana can be without alliteration
d- Ataba is built on m
Sources of Middle Eastern Music, historical Background and influences
- Music history
- Musically-related philosophies
- Attitudes and social contexts within the Arab world.
Arab music geographical
2- Contact with the Classical Past
During the 9th century, the scholars of the Islamic world were introduced to the treatises
of the ancient Greek
The Abbasid Caliph al-mamun established Bayt al-Hikmah (the house of wisdom), a
scholarly institution that w
b- The influence of Moorish Spain to Arab music:
The introduction of Eastern science and literature into settings of wealth and splendor, as
represented in the courts of Seville, Granada, and Cordoba, were inspirational to the new
artistic life of al-Anda
- Khedive Ismail built the Cairo Opera House, which became a symbol of
westernization in the Near Eastern Muslim world.
Ismail, who sought to Europeanize Egypt, Promoted the fame and social status of
Egyptian Artists such as the female singer Almaz (1860-