Differences between Ataba and Mijana:
a- Ataba doesn't have an introduction
Mijana has an introduction
b- Ataba ends with b or a( )or ()
Mijana ends with Na
c- Ataba is built on alliteration always
Mijana can be without alliteration
d- Ataba is built on m
We can also find Mijana form without the alliteration:
Mw( MxG6(% G ML2%
M# C@ 8:N K8] %1Z
Mw`G?# P@ %102+Z 8G #.2%
%118@ 5( M&aG@:< $+
Like the Mijana, some people say that the Ataba form comes from Iraq. The meaning
of the word is from 0%
#(#?0; %( <@ Q O1;#(#(
#(#( ON%( 2% ON%(#(#
Kx2+w( ON<G OZ%; 5a`G
Kx8D UL O1GT (#
#91L t8CN % V;%B8]
Kx2+| \2#~G @:8< KF0Fi
9- Mijana and Ataba\ )+)C5 )2) D/'
Those two folklore forms are usually sang together and they are hard to sing.
+Nr Ji x#&(
#?>G (5 Ki%T %2
#VCG k8~@ y@#>@
#? BCG+ PN y N+8L
#49G% S@ d9 S T
6- Al-Huwwara, ala-l-mani\ ;2)<5)#@& 543
Those two folklore songs have the same melody and the same maqam (Huzam).
:1< 2%G %18W
4- Abu el-zilof\ 6#7#+&
`#q eNr # a i +. eGsG
t8T+G4% G .+ eGsG@+
It is composed on the maqam Huzam. This folklore form requires long breath and it
shows the ability of the singer to ornament.
It is composed of two parts:
Folk Music (Folklore)
1- Skaba ya Dmu el-ein\ !"#,)+) *) '& @?>% 7<. ;:98# 7625 (5 (40% 210/#.% (- (+ (&%$#A BC9D5 EFG (- I0; J1267
K1L %. @:%MFL KN6E@
A sad song fitting a single melody with a single maqam. The melody is composed on
She did two films in her life:
- Intisar al-shabab (1941). Farid el-Atrash composed
all the songs of this film
- Gharam wa intiqam (1944).
Two of the most famous songs of Asmahan are:
Dakhalti marra fi ginina for Midhat Assem
Ya Habibi Taala of a Turkish
The characteristics of Umm Kulthums voice
6 elements made Umm Kulthums voice exceptional:
2-The mastery of her voice (the ornaments)
She used to sing easily very hard phrases.
3-The power of the voice
Her second life companion Zakaria Ahmad
His first composition for her was Elli 7abbek ya hanah in
He gave her great songs and Adwar.
Umm Kulthum presented 6 films:
Nashid el-Amal 1936
composers like sheikh Abu el Ila Mohamad (who became her
teacher when she moved to Cairo in 1923 )and sheikh
- In 1924 she met Ahmad Rami the great poet, and the
dentist Ahmad sabri el-Nagridi who started teaching her how
to play the Ud bef
- He was the voice of 1919s revolution against the
His patriotic songs can be classified in 5 types:
1- Hymns with military rhythms and direct patriotic
2- Songs of different professions with patriotic
3- Ordinary song
knowing that reciting the Koran was the most important thing
that every singer should learn. But she could sing the
hardest Qassaid after listening to all the masters of her time.
- She had a long breath and a two octaves voice which made
her able to sing
Chapter Five: Egyptian Music
Munira al-Mahdiya (1885-1965)
- Munira el Mahdiya was considered as a leading figure at
- She worked in theatre where she acquired her playing
technique and her lyrical talent as an actress and singer.
The Monologue form is a part of the musical theatre and usually the singer reviews the
events that happened before or talks about his concerns
Later on, the Monologue became a separate form and not only as a part of the musicals.
- The rhythm wahda kabira.
- The melodic phrase has the same length of the poetic phrase and they end together.
- It starts and ends on the same maqam even if there are modulations in the middle.
- The musical interludes are not part of the melody. They h
This is an improvisation in free rhythm within a certain framework, played on a solo
The Taqsim is played in a main mode (maqam), but its arabesques move into related
modes, and after the instrumentalist has displayed his skills he e
C- Bashraf (Peshrev)
The Bashraf is an instrumental form that was invented by the Turks too.
The origin of the term Bashraf is Persian and it means moving forward or literally
al- thahaab ila al-amam.
Characteristics of Bashraf:
-Usually it is used as an
Forms and Genres In Arabic Music
In general, there are two sets of Forms in Arab countries:
1- Instrumental Forms: Those associated with instrumental compositions
2- Vocal Forms: Those connected with vocal music
Pearl fishermen's songs, or Fijri, of Kuwait, Qatar, and Bahrain employ
percussive sound in the form of complicated group hand clapping.
In these songs, a small double-sided hand-drum, known as the Mirwas, is
Another member of the pearl fishermen's
- The French did the first European version of the Rababah. It was called
Rebec (Medieval instrument)
- Later on they kept on developing it till they reached the most refined
version that is the violin.
b-The Kamanjahs musical characteristics
F- The Rababa
a- The Rababahs Characteristics
- The bedouin Rababah is probably the most important instrument
employed throughout this region
- The Rababah is capable of a side range of dynamic accents and
ornaments and it is the essential melody instrume
- It is made of reed.
In Levantine and Iraqi villages, certain wind instruments are inseparable
from wedding songs and dances:
- Minjayrah (Lebanese): the open-ended, end-blown reed flute.
- Shabbabah (Palestinian): the flute type with a limited melodic r
The performer plucks the strings with short horn-plectra placed between
the tip of each index finger and a small metal ring.
The performer hits the strings with two very light sticks that end in a
b-The Santurs Influence:
B- The Qanun
A psaltery with a right-angled trapezoidal shape with twenty-six sets of
triple strings (78), every three in unison.
The strings, previously made of gut, are now made of nylon, metal and
copper or silver-wound silk.
The bridge on the right-ha
A- The Ud
- Fretless instrument
- Five double courses of nylon or gut and metal-wound silk strings
(Sixth string was added)
- Plucked with an eagles feather or a piece of plastic
- Intricate visual ornamentation is typical of
Certain types of instruments are frequently associated with specific social
- Bowed instruments often accompany the solo voice. In this case, the
singer and the accompanist are typically the same person.
The Bedouin Shair uses the Rababah to ac
Musical Instruments of the Arab world
Viewed in their great variety, Arab musical instruments are a living
a- Arab history
b- Musical and visual aesthetics
c- Social and cultural facets of a rich and complex society
An important fe