Stress effects on the hippocampus
and prefrontal cortex
Overview for today
Overview of the stress response
Shutting Off Stress Response
Neural structural outcome of chronic stress
Genomic versus Non-genomic effects
About Prion Disease
-prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family or rare
progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals
-prion disease distinguished by
long incubation periods
Lecture 5: Common Neurodegenerative Pathways
1. What aspects of neurodegeneration are experienced during aging?
-increased oxidative stress
-perturbed energy homeostasis
-accumulation of damaged proteins
-lesions in the nucleic acids of cells
2. List the
Lecture 23: Huntingtons Disease
1. How does the normal Huntingtin protein contribute to neuroprotection via transcriptional
regulation and what is the effect of the mutant Huntington protein on this function?
-proteasome activity protec
Lecture 24: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
1. What are the 3 major families of superoxide dismutase?
-the Cu/Zn type (which binds both copper and zinc)
-Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese)
-Ni type, which binds nickel
2. What are the 3 fo
Lectures 12 & 13: Alcohol & Drug Use as Risk Factors for Neurodegeneration
1. Describe the paradox of addiction.
-how can a person develop and maintain a pattern of behaviour that is so obviously destructive
to their life?
-no answer but many theories
Lectures 16 & 17: Multiple Sclerosis
1. What is the age group most often diagnosed with MS?
-young adults aged 15-40
2. What is Multiple Sclerosis?
-disease characterized by damage to myelin in the motor and sensory nerved
-sometimes the actual axons are
Lectures 18 & 19: Alzheimers Disease
1. Describe Alzheimers disease.
-a progressive neurodegenerative disorder
-plaques and tangles form in a pattern beginning in areas important to learning and memory
then other areas
-cause neurodegeneration and a loss
Lecture 4: Vulnerable Brain Regions
1. Individuals with damage to their hippocampus show what kind of memory deficits?
-prevents the acquisition of new episodic memories
2. Define long term potentiation and describe the details of the process.
Lecture 2: Perspectives on Adult Development & Aging
1. What is aging?
-a complex biological process in which changes at molecular, cellular, and organ levels results in
a progressive, inevitable, and inescapable decrease in the ability of the body to res
Lecture 3: Neuroscience as a Basis for Adult Development & Aging
1. Describe the case of patient H.M.
-bilateral removal of medial temporal lobe including hippocampus to treat chronic severe drug
-caused chronic enduring anterograde amn
Lecture 6: Dementia
1. Describe the disease and prevalence of dementia.
-an acquired and persistent syndrome of intellectual impairment
-characterized by a progressive, global deterioration in intellect, including memory, learning,
Lecture 7: Stress
1. Describe the process of the immediate subcortical response to a threat.
-visual stimulus reaches the thalamus
-information immediately goes to the fear center in the amygdala
-the amygdala alerts other brain structures (hypothalamus a
Neuropathology of Motor Neurodegenerative Diseases: Huntingtons Disease
-strong genetic inheritance pattern in Huntingtons disease
-part of Huntington gene (Htt) is a repeated section called a trinucleotide repeat
varies in length between
Lecture 22: Parkinsons Disease
1. Describe the pattern of Lewy body accumulation according to Braak staging.
-abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein bound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells
-protein accumulation forms inclusions called Lewy b
Lectures 10 & 11: Stroke
1. What is a stroke?
-caused by disruption of blood flow to part of the brain
-deprives neurons and other cells of glucose and oxygen leading to cell death
-results in impaired or lost function
2. What percentage of cardiac output
Questions from Aging
List and define the four key features of the lifespan
List the four forces of development and provide an
example of each.
List and define (elaborate on) the three main
components of successful aging.
Lectures 14 & 15: Prions
1. What are protein chaperones?
-most proteins fold into 3D shapes
-many can fold unassisted through the chemical properties of their amino acids but others
require the aid of chaperones to fold into their native states
Lecture 21: Risk Factors for Motor Neurodegenerative Diseases
1. How is Parkinsons disease effected by dopamine?
-dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra are lost in Parkinsons
-results in severe dopamine depletion in the striatum which is respon
Alzheimers Disease I
-in 1901, Alzheimer observed a patient at the Frankfurt Asylum named Mrs. Deter
-51 year old patient has strange behavioural symptoms, including a loss of short-term memory
-in 1906, Mrs. Deter died and Alzheime
-the sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene
DNA to mRNA
-residues in a protein are often chemically modified by posttranslational modification
alters the physical and chemical properties
Lecture 20: Clinical Symptoms of Motor Neurodegenerative Disease
1. Describe Parkinsons disease.
-chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder
-genetic and environmental risk factors, but no known cause
-risk increases with age
-usually in 60 and over
Multiple Sclerosis: Inflammation
Quick Facts on Multiple Sclerosis
-Canadians have one of the highest rates of MS in the world
-MS is the most common neurological disease affecting young adults in Canada
-women are more than three times as likely to devel
Alcohol & Drug Use as Risk Factors for Neurodegeneration
Drugs of Abuse & Addiction
-the controlled substances act of 1970 established a system to classify the abuse potential of
drugs known as the Schedule of Controlled Substances
-the schedule excludes
Alcohol & Drug Use as Risk Factors for Neurodegeneration
Glutamate/NMDA Receptors: Acute Ethanol Effects
-NMDA ionophore receptor channel complex has 4 sites of action
1. a neurotransmitter recognition site where the agonists (glutamate and NMDA) bind
Lectures 8 & 9: Brain Injury
1. Describe a brain injury.
-a blow to the head or body causing the brain to move rapidly within the skull causing brain
function to change either temporarily or prolonged
-can be serious and life threatening if not properly m
Hauss-Wegrzyniak, et al. (1998) Chronic neuroinflammation in rats reproduces components of
the neurobiology of Alzheimers disease. Brain Research 780, 294-303
In the article Chronic neuroinflammation in rats reproduces components of the
Uryu, K. et al. (2002) Repetitive Mild Brain Trauma Accelerates A Deposition, Lipid
Peroxidation, and Cognitive Impairment in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer
Amyloidosis. J. Neurosci. 22, 446-454
In the article Repetitive mild brain t