Traffic Engineering Studies
Several problems are associated with the highway mode of
transportation including highway-related accidents, parking
difficulties, congestion, and delay
Adequate collection of data is essential in attempting to reduce
the neg
2/7/2014
Highway Capacity and Level of
Service
Traffic Flow Elements
Volume (V):
Total number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway or a lane
during a given time interval (veh/h, veh/d, )
Flow (q):
Equivalent hourly rate at which vehicles pass a
Intersection Design and Control
An intersection is an area shared by two or more roads
Main function is to allow the change of route
directions
It is an area of decision for all drivers and thus
requires additional effort
Intersections normally perfor
Driver, Vehicle, and Road
Characteristics
Main components of highway system are:
-Roads
-Vehicle
-Road users: drivers, pedestrians
Efficient and safe highway transportation system requires:
-Knowledge of the highway system components and their limitatio
Highway Materials
Highway pavements are constructed of either asphalt
cement or portland cement concrete and ultimately
resting on native soil
Main difference is in the way traffic loads are carried
and the way stresses are transmitted to the underlying
Introduction
Transportation is concerned with the movement of goods and
people from one location to another
It is essential for any nations development and growth
Need for a strong transportation system arises mainly from
economic needs but is also str
Geometric Design
Highway Location
Highway Location involves the acquisition of data concerning the terrain
upon which the road will traverse and the economical siting of an alignment
The highway location process involves four phases:
1. Office Study of
Highway Safety
Traffic safety has been a growing concern for road
safety professionals
In spite of this concern, traffic safety problems have
caused enormous economic and social costs
It is commonly accepted that there are many costs
associated with ve
Structural Design
Flexible Pavement
1
Components of Pavement System
Surface course (wearing surface):
The top layer of pavement directly in contact with traffic
A mixture of mineral aggregates and asphaltic materials
Main functions:
- Transmits the wh
Pavement Maintenance and
Rehabilitation
Roadway deterioration over the years is inevitable
The gradual deterioration occurs due to many factors
including variations in climate, drainage, soil
conditions, and traffic
Lack of funds limits timely highway
Driver, Vehicle, and Road
Characteristics
Main components of highway system are:
-Road
-Vehicle
-Road users: driver, pedestrian,.
Efficient and safe highway transportation system requires:
-knowledge of the highway system components and their limitation
Traffic Engineering Studies
Several problems are associated with the highway mode of
transportation including highway-related accidents, parking
difficulties, congestion, and delay
Adequate collection of data is essential in attempting to reduce
the neg
Traffic Engineering Studies
Several problems are associated with the highway mode of
transportation including highway-related accidents, parking
difficulties, congestion, and delay
Adequate collection of data is essential in attempting to reduce
the neg
Highway Safety
most fatal crashes are vehicle collisions more than air
Traffic safety has been a growing concern for road
safety professionals
In spite of this concern, traffic safety problems have
caused enormous economic and social costs
It is common
Process of Calculating the remaining
Balance of the Auto Loan
Compounding
Compounding occurs at a different rate than
that at which payments are made
Could be computed as follows:
1- Identify the number of compounding periods per year
(M), the number of p
Commercial Loan Transactions
!
!
"
!
Amortized Loans
Add-on Loans
Amortized Loans
Is the case when the loan is to be repaid in equal
periodic amounts (weekly, monthly, quarterly or
annually) example for that automobile loans,
appliances loans and home mor
Example Closed mortgage with prepayment
privileges
Home price = 125,000
Down payment 25,000
Conventional mortgage = 100,000
3 years term 8% per annum
Amortization period of 25 years
Closed mortgage with payment privileges once each 1- year extra payment o
Mortgage
!
!
1.
2.
3.
4.
"
A mortgage is generally a long-term amortized loan used primarily to the purpose of
purchasing a piece of property such as home
Types of Mortgages
National Housing Act (NHA) mortgage
Conventional mortgage
High- Ratio mortgage
Co
Example
!
!
Suppose that you borrow $5000 with add-on rate
of 12% for 2 years. You will make a 24 equal
monthly payment.
Determine the amount of the monthly installment
Compute the nominal and effective annual
interest rate on the loan
Add- on rate = 12%
Solution
!
!
!
In = (Bn -1) i
I1 = 5000 (12%/12) = 50.0
PP1 = A In
= 235.37 50
PP1 = 185.37
B1 = 5000 185.37 = 4814.63
I2 =4814.63 *0.1 = 48.15
PP2 = 235.37-48.15
PP2 = 187.22
B2 = 4814.63 187.22= 4627.41
5
Add on loans
In this type of loan , the total in
Example
Example 7
Suppose you make equal quarterly deposit of
$1,000 into a fund that pays interest at a rate of
12% compounded monthly. Find the balance at
the end of year three.
Solution
Solution
!
!
Step 1: M = 12 compounding periods/year
K = 4 payment
Tabular Method
B0 is the starting balance
I1 = B0*i =P *i
PP1 = A - P *i
B1 = B0 - (A-P *i) =P-PP1
At the end of second period
I2 = B1 i = (P-PP1)i
P2 = A (P-PP1)i = (A-Pi) + PP1 i = PP1 (1+i)
B2 = B1 PP2 = P-(PP1+PP2)
Bn = P- (PP1+PP2+.+PPN)
= P- (PP1+PP
Main
Main Issues to Consider
1. If payments occur more frequently than
annual, how do you calculate economic
equivalence?
2. If interest period is other than annual,
how do you calculate economic
equivalence?
3. How are commercial loans structured?
4. How
(b) Monthly
!
A = $5,000
!
0
12
40
Payment period :
Quarterly
Interest Period:
Monthly
9%
= 0.75% per month
12
i p = (1 + 0.0075)3 = 2.267% per quarter
i=
N = 40 quarters
P = $5, 000( P / A, 2.267%, 40)
= $130,586
P
(c) Continuously
!
A = $5,000
!
0
12
Pa
Example 8
!
A series of equal quarterly
payments of $5,000 for 10
years is equivalent to what
present amount at an
interest rate of 9%
compounded
A = $5,000
0
12
40
Quarters
(a) quarterly
(b) monthly
(c) continuously
"
"
"
(a) Quarterly
!
A = $5,000
!
Pay
Equivalence
Equivalence calculations with effective
interest
interest rates
Compounding
Compounding period equal to payment period
(M=K)
(M=K)
This type of problems could be solved as follows:
1- Identify the number of compounding (or payment)
periods (M=
Solution
(1)
Compounded Semi annually
r = nominal rate = 10% or 0.1
m=2
m
r
i = 1 + 1
m
2
0.1
i = 1 + 1
2
i = 0.1025
i = 10.25%
17
Solution (cont.)
(2) Compounded Continuously
m
i = er 1 = e0.1 1 = 0.1052
i = 10.52%
Note:
! The higher the m, the highe
Continuous Compounding
Continuous Compounding is the ultimate limit for the
number of compounding periods in 1 year.(m infinity)
Starting from:
r
i = 1 +
m
m
1
r
i = lim 1 +
m
m
m
m
m
r r
1 = lim 1 +
m
m
r
1
r
m
r r
r
lim 1 +
=e
m
m
r
i = e 1 ( where