-Molecules with same composition, but different arrangement of atoms.
Structural Isomers: Differ in atoms bonded to metal.
1. Coordination Isomers
-Compounds in which the composition within the coordination sphere is different.
Name cation first, then anion.
Name ligands first in alphabetical order and the metal center last
Anions (Ex. Cl-) as ligands end in -o
Prefixes identify the number of ligands of a given type (di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-,
24.6 Magnetic Properties
What causes Magnetism?
-Unpaired electrons in molecules are attracted to a magnetic field.
-Ex. [CoF6]3- is paramagnetic because it has 3 unpaired electrons in it.
-Ex. [Co(NH3)6]3+ is diamagnetic because there are no unpaired fre
23.1 General Properties of Transition Elements
-Elements with partially filled d-orbitals are the transition elements
-They provide a transition from s to p orbitals starting in period 4
-Characterized by filled s orbitals and subsequent filling of d orbi
9.1 Classifying the Element: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
-Mendeleev designed his table based on increasing atomic weight and chemical properties.
-The trends in the periodic table can be understood in terms of Eeff (Screening), n (orbital size
9.4 Ionization Energy
Ionization Energy: Energy required to strip an electron from an atom or ion in the gaseous state.
-The starting atom or ion must be in a gas state and must be in its ground state.
-The ionization energy is always positive energy must
9.5 Electron Affinity
Electron Affinity: Energy change when an electron is added to an atom or ion in the gaseous state.
-EA is often negative Energy is given off (exothermic)
O(g) + 1e- O-(g) EA1 = -141.0kJ/mol
O-(g) + 1e- O2-(g) EA2 = +744kJ/mol (Positi
8.11 Electron Configurations
Building Electron Configurations (Z>1)
1. Electrons occupy orbitals in a way that minimizes the energy of the atom.
2. No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers ( Pauli Exclusion
9.2 Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions
-The basis of classification is metals and non-metals.
-The classification of metals and non-metals depends on the ease of losing or gaining electrons.
-Metals lose electrons to achieve ns2np6 stability.
8.8 Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals of the Hydrogen Atom
-Smaller surface area means a larger value of , meaning a higher chance of finding the electron there.
-Smaller surface area means a larger value of , meaning a higher
8.12 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
-Groups run down
-Periods run across
-Elements in the same group have the same valence electron configurations.
-n corresponds to the Period Number
-The electron configuration de
8.4 The Bohr Atom
Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
-Worked closely with Rutherford.
-Saw Balmers formula and the mystery of quantum became clear.
Balmers Formula for Hydrogen Emission Spectrum
-The Bohr model of an atom explains why an electron d
8.5 Two Ideas Leading to a New Quantum Mechanics
-There was evidence of light being a particle, and evidence of light being a wave.
-Louis de Broglie propositioned that small particles of matter may at times display wave-like
8.9 Electron Spin: The Fourth Quantum Number
-Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach execute an
experiment that proves electrons have a
spin. -Silver was vaporized in an oven, and a
beam of silver atoms was passed through a
non-uniform magnetic field, where the be
8.10 Multielectron Atoms
-For multielectron atoms, repulsion between electrons must be considered.
-To study the actions of all the electrons in a multielectron atom, each electron must be considered
separately in the environment of the nucleus and the ot
23.5 Iron Triad
-Three elements Iron, Cobalt and Nickel have such similar properties that they are known as the iron
-Iron is the 4th most abundant element in the Earths crust.
-Co and Ni are not as common, but still very sufficient.
The Iron Triad
-The eye can detect photons from 400 (Violet
High Energy) 700 (Red Low Energy) nm.
-White is a mix of all the colours.
Colour Observed = White Light Colour Absorbed
-Coordination compounds are highly coloured because they absorb photons in th
21.2 The Alkali Metals
-Very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature.
-Softer than most other metals The farther down the group the softer they become.
-Very low densities.
-Readily lose electrons.
A + H2O AOH + 1/2H2
-Liberate (and may even ig
Chapter 8 Rotational Motion
When a rigid object rotates around a fixed axis, each point of the object moves in a circular path. Lines drawn
perpendicularly from the rotation axis to various points in the object all sweep out the same angle in any given
Chapter 12 Sound
Sound travels as a longitudinal wave in air and other materials. In air, the speed of sound increases with
temperature; at 20C, it is about 343m/s.
The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency; the higher the frequency, the higher
Chapter 7 Linear Momentum
The momentum, p of an object is defined as the product of its mass times its velocity,
In terms of momentum, Newtons second law can be written as:
That is, the rate of change of momentum equals the net applied force.
The law of c
Chapter 11 Vibrations and Waves
A vibrating object undergoes simple harmonic motion (SHM) if the restoring force is proportional to the
The maximum displacement is called the amplitude, A.
The period, T, is the time required for one complete
Chapter 6 Work and Energy
Work is done on an object by a force when the object moves through a distance d. If the direction of a constant
force F makes an angle with the direction of motion, the work done by this force is:
Energy can be defined as the abi
Chapter 5 Circular Motion; Gravitation
An object moving in a circle of radius r with constant speed v is said to be moving in uniform circular motion.
It has a centripetal acceleration aR that is directed radially toward the center of the circle (also cal
25.5 Radioactive Dating
fast does Radioactive Decay occur?
Number of disintegrations per unit time
Number of nuclei present at a given time
Number of nuclei present at time t
Number of nuclei present at
25.7 Nuclear Stability
Band of Stability
N/Z=1 to N>Z (1.52)
One neutron per proton (N=Z) is sufficient
to achieve stability.
*All nuclides with Z>83 are unstable*
The transfer of energy through waves or particles.
Greater than UV is ionizing energy and breaks chemical bonds (energetic particles).
Other organisms can see UV (Eg. Bee) or Infrared (Eg. Snake).
Microwaves are used
25.6 Nuclear Energy
-First nuclear bomb test was on July 16, 1945 at 5:29am.
-1kT of TNT was calculated explosion but it was actually 20kT
-Splitting of atom was by Strassman and Hahn split Uranium
-Einstein postulated in his equation that a very small ma
25.4 & 25.4 Artificial Radioactivity
Rutherford was the first person to do transmutation.
-Nitrogen to Oxygen by bombarding it with alpha particles
-Holy Grail of Chemistry
Daughter of Madam Curie discovered artificial radioactivity
-Aluminium to Phosphor
24.5 Crystal Field Theory
-Model for bonding in transition metal complexes.
-Explains properties of transition metal complex.
*d orbitals are key*
-Treat ligands as point negative charges.
Ionic Bonding Electrostatic Interactions
-Metal ion attracted to l