Natural mechanisms by which modern species emerged
1856Discovery of fossils in Neander Valley, Germany
First specimen to be labeled Neanderthal
!859On the Origin of Species
An explanation for observed diversity in nature
How Does Variation Arise? (Contd)
Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle crisis-blocked capillaries
Problem with lungs and breathing
Experience serious health problems
Children without treatment in poor countries usually dont live past
Handout (2) written for assignment on AVE
Why does the sickle cell trait persist in some human groups?
Balanced polymorphism: Poly multiple, morphism morphology
appearance of one or more variants of a specific trait, balanced
means relative percentage
What is a Primate? Required Reading Ch. 6
Three Prominent Tendencies in Primates (p. 158)
Adaptations for life in the trees (arboreal)
Dietary plasticity eat a variety of foods
Increased parental investment
Versatile Skeletal Structure
From Last Week
Explanations for variation in human skin colour
Vitamin D hypothesis
Today Is race useful as a biological category?
o Categorize human variation by measuring crania (skull)
o Categorize bas
Modern Human Variation Ch. 5 pp. 121-125, 135-144
What is the evolutionary significance of skin colour?
What is race and is it biologically meaningful?
Variation in Skin Colour
Determined by amount of melanin (pigment), hemoglobin, and
carotene in skin
Debunking Some Myths about Evolution
Myths of Evolution
Evolution is just a theory; there is no substantial evidence to prove
Evolution means we evolved from chimpanzees; no, human and
chimps have a common ancestor but chimpanzees have al
What is Anthropology?
Anthroposhuman/man logosstudy of
Field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects
of human biology
It is historical, contextual, comparative, and holistic
How did we come to be the way we are?
What forces in th
ANTHROP 1Z03 C01 WINTER 2012
ANTHROP 1Z03 C01
THE HUMAN SPECIES: BECOMING AND BEING HUMAN
Department of Anthropology, McMaster University
(updated December 14, 2011)
Lecture Time: Mondays 7:00pm 10:00pm
Lecture Location: TSH 120
How does evolution work?
Evolution occurs when you have inherited characteristics that confer
Advantageous traits increase in frequency over time
Evolution by Natural Selection
New forms evolve (change) through descent with
How Does Evolution Work
Heather Battles TA - Mon 1-2pm, Wed 1-2pm CNH 533
Developments since Darwin and Wallace
How genetic variation arises (molecular level, population level) =
The Question of Inheritance
How does Evolution work?
How far did early hominids transport tools?
Toth and Schick (2009)
Oldubai Gorge Tanzania Oldowan tools found several
kilometers up to 8-20km from source
1. Origins of evolutionary thought
2. Main features of evolution
Anthro 1Z03: Evolution and Mechanisms of Inheritance
All aspects of the biology and behaviour of our species and our genus, past and present
o Evolutionary perspective
o Bio-cultural perspective
o Interaction between biology and culture
o Holistic: interrelationship between all
Early Hominid Origins
Where Are the Earliest Fossils Found?
Concentrated in two main areas of Africa: Rift Valley and south Africa
Newest fossils appearing in Chad, Africa
The Pre- Australopithecines
Pre-australopithecines (7-4 mya)
General characteristics of australopithecines (4 mya)
Lucy most famous example of austral-afarensis
If a species gets too specialized they may get extinct Fig 10,30
Diverse Species in East and South Africa
How Can We Date Fossils?
Relative Dating Stratiography
Analysis of geological layers (strata)
Principle of Superposition older layers below
Law of Association idea that if you find two things in the same
layer they should be of the same date
How Do We Study the Past?
Chapter 8 pg. 213-227
Anthropological Archaeology- What are Fossils?
Inorganic remains of once living organisms
Bone minerals replaced with minerals that form rock
Soil surrounding Laetoli footprints in East Africa dated to ab
Exam: 20 points short answer (definitions, compare/contrast, discuss main
points), no diagrams, 35 multiple choice (1 point each), up to Tuesdays
lecture, study lectures & readings, bring pen and pencil blue or black pen
only (pen for written answers and
Intentional use of fire
o Peking Man remains for 40-50 individuals
o Evidence of burnt animals bones seeds clearly indicating
intentional use of fire to cook/process food.
o Cooking food allows you to digest meat (