Energy and nutrients Chapter 7
Sources of energy: light, organic, and inorganic
Rate of energy acquisition is limited
Optimal foraging theory
helps explain choice
and location of food
How on Earth life is
being fed ?
Energy use a
opulatlon Growth 261
11g the Evidence 11: Frequency of Altemative
es in a,- Population 262
. Apphcations. If he Human Population 266
Key Terms 270
: _ Rview Questions 270
. suggested Readings 271 iven suitable environmental con
What is ecology?
Forest birds-testing competition theory
-Can several species use the same resource (MacArthur)?
-This is more than just a simple question, because ultimately one species monopolizes the resource and
becomes well fed
Species in Communities and Ecosystems
Individuals that share common decent and can interbreed
Landscape in Botswana (Picture). A river that was close to a
continent and dries up to form a delta with aquatic and terrestrial
If we co
Chapter 17- Species Interactions and Community Structure
A food web is a summary of the feeding interactions in a community of species
examples of primary producers, consumers, etc. and their different tropic levels to
food chains (linear) are
Tunacate invades other populations and grows very quickly
found in aquatic as invertebrates
The Case of Dall Sheep
Wolves kill sheep- must we control wolves then?
Dall sheep follow type 1 survivorship curve
high at the start of the life and
In plants, self thinning refers to reduction in:
Population density in response to competition, as population biomass increase
Gause's competitive exclusion principle states that:
No two species with identical niches can coexists indefinitely
Chapter 15- Mutualism, Parasitism and Disease
Interactions between individuals of different species that benefit both partners
both of you reciprocate equal contribution
ex. humming bird who gets nutrients from the plant
each of them has different bene
Bio 2F03: Chapter 5 and 6 Lecture Notes
The River Continuum Concept claims:
rivers can be seen as a continuum of water courses from small to large
animal communities reflect size and quality of food particle gradient of the river *
all rivers are conti
*midterm covers Weeks 1-5 lectures and Textbook chapters 1-12*
*make sure you can look at figures and tables and can explain those, etc.*
*make sample questions that your lecture notes are covering* 6:30 Angus Center sign up for IMPACT
Chapter 2 Life on L
Ecology Ch. 7 Energy and Nutrient Relations
Sources of Energy
Rate of energy acquisition is limited!
Optimal Foraging Theory
helps explain the choice and location of food items
How is life on Earth
Chapter 19- Primary Production and Energy Flow
Terrestrial primary production is primarily limited by temperature and moisture
Consumers affect the primary production rates
Aquatic primary production is generally limited by nutrient availability
- increased temp. can lead to high rates of water loss -> lethal!
- cicada in desert still remain active when environmental temp. exceed its lethal max. !
6.1 Water Availability!
- Concentration gradients inuence the movement of water b/w an organisms a
-Uneven heating of the Earths surface by the sun & tilt of the Earth produce predictable latitudinal
variation in climate
B/c earth is spherical suns rays are most concentrated at latitudes where the sun is directly
studied sun-tracking behaviour by arctic flowers
'Dryas integriflolia' (tundra flower) tracked its movement as the sun's position changed, increasing
temp of itself and insects that lived on them
In cold regions of N, Southern hot
1) The Oceans!
-over 360 million km^2 of earth surface!
-5 major oceans: Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, Pacic, and Southern Oceans!
(size: Pacic > Atlantic > Indian > Southern Ocean > Arctic)!
-undersea mountains (isolated or in long chains)!
E used by diff organisms are in the form of:
o Light, organic molecules, inorganic molecules
Nutrients: (raw materials) acquired from env. to build organic/inorganic
7.1 ENERGY SOURCE
Organisms use one of three main sources of E
population structure: !
-dened by number of factors: mortality pattern, age distributions, sex rations, and dispersal!
Adolph Murie: studied pop. of wolves and sheep in Alaska!
Jan Murie: studied pop. of ground squirrel!
11.1 Patterns of Survival!
Chapter 10 Notes!
Population: group of potentially interbreeding individuals of a single species inhabiting a
Some characteristics of pop.: !
1) distribution: size, shape, location of the area (volume) to occupies!
2) number of individual
12.1 BIDE (Birth, Immigration, Death, Emigration) Dynamics!
Population size changes as a function of birth rates, death rates, immigration, and
emigration. These processes may be either density independent or density dependent. !
birth: process that pro
CHECK WORD DOCUMENT FOR NOTES!
Resource limitations and
laboratory models produce
Competition affects niches
of species in ecological and
Chapter 1 just refers to basic terminology.
Where is the Earth surface movement fastest?
The speed of the person at the equator is fast because she covers more distance in the same time span,
while the speed of the person at the North Pole is nex
Chapter 1: Introduction to Ecology
Ecology: Branch of science that studies the relationships between organisms and the
Human-beings were always part of Ecology (hunters had to be familiar with prey,
farmers had to worry about how
individuals of different
species that benefit both
Mutualism Chapter 15
Deer bottom left eat lots of bad stuff like
wood and leaves, so they process it by
Is mutualism common? Do species not use it?
Water moves from areas of high to low concentration. This is implemented by a force
called water potential.
Water essentials Chapter 6
Gradients of water potential
Terrestrial plants and animals
balance water loss against water
Marine and freshw