Chapter 26
Urinary System
26.1 Functions of the Urinary System
1) Excretion.how?
Filtration, re-absorption, secretion.formation of urine
2) Regulation of blood volume and pressure
3) Regulation of blood
Chapter 23
Respiratory System
The Respiratory System
Bridge is formed by frontal bone, nasal
Ability to draw oxygen from the air, and
bone, and maxilla
use it for the body
Actual nose is formed from cartilage
All tissues continually use O2 & release
Chapter 23
Respiratory System
Functions of the Respiratory System
Ventilation: Movement of air into and out
of lungs
External respiration: Gas exchange between
air in lungs and blood
Tra
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R. Cramer, D. Hofheinz, and E. Kiltz
where is a proof that (c, d, J) L. Hence, correctly generated ciphertexts
are not rejected. Furthermore,
(c) = ( )(g) = (u),
which implies that decapsulation extracts the same key as encapsulation.
Theorem 3. If (S
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ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
Addition, Constant multiplication. As in the passive case addition and
constant multiplication can be computed without communication between the
players. This can be done because when a player adds shares of two secrets
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ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
10. Damg
ard, I., Fujisaki, E.: A statistically-hiding integer commitment scheme based
on groups with hidden order. In: Zheng, Y. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2002. LNCS,
vol. 2501, pp. 125142. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)
11. Damg
ar
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tokenizer. T has oracle access to ABT , as well as any oracle ABT might possess.
As such, (TABT )O (x) is the machine that runs AO
BT where T translates things
to and from pseudonyms as appropriate as it gives input to A, p
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that |G| = g cfw_0, 1, . . . , m. Similarly, we denote P[D (X) | g, i] := P[D (X) =
1 | |G| = g i = i] when additionally conditioned on i = i. Then,
D (G(X ), U ) = |P[D (G(X ) = 1] P[D (U ) = 1]|
!
!
m
!"
!
!
!
=!
P|G| (g) (P
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Y. Vahlis
Event E. For every pub for which there exist pri1 , pri2 such that [g(pri1 ) =
pub] TPUB1 and [g(pri2 ) = pub] TPUB2 there exists an pri such that
[g(pri) = pub] L.
Essentially, the event E states that our adversary has discovered a trapdoor
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Y. Vahlis
result, Gennaro et al define an oracle model which provides all algorithms access
to a random trapdoor permutation family. We adopt this model partially in our
work.
In [13] Gertner et al prove that chosen ciphertext secure public key encryp
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ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
can be found. This means that the dierence between the density of primes in
Iodd (n) and I3 (mod 4) (n) is at most: ln2x which for 2n = x > 2.3 1010 means
2
ln(x) < 2. This gives us another doubling of the average error
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ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
A protocol for player
a [2n1!
, 2n ] is: Player i calculates 1 , . . . , 4
! 2 i to proven1
and 1 , . . . 4 s.t.
i = a 2
and
i2 = 2n a. Player i shares"the
numbers using VRISS
calculates
= (a 2n1 ) 2i
" 2and the three
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ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
reduced modulo and afterward broadcast to open = (ra mod ) + , where
0 < 3. If 0 (mod ) then |a, however, if 0 (mod ) then either
|a or |r. To prevent the protocol from rejecting a when |r the protocol is
executed a numb
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Y. Vahlis
the oracle Break slightly then the adversary can simulate the modified oracle
Break on her own with high probability. Since no adversary can break the onewayness of a random trapdoor permutation, we obtain a bound on the advantage
of an adve
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I. Damg
ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
for the biprimality test, but this turns out to be unclear. The method from [11]
relies heavily on the fact that for any prime factor p in a number N to be tested,
p does not divide N 1. To argue in a similar way for the
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U. Maurer and S. Tessaro
value to be used as the seed of a so-called pseudorandom generator (PRG). An example are cryptographic applications where a key agreement protocol yields only
a short key. More generally, PRGs are a central building block in c
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Y. Vahlis
Breaking Security under Correlated Inputs
In this section we describe an adversary that breaks the correlation-security of
any trapdoor permutation, while making only a polynomial number of queries
to the oracles (g, e, d, Break).
Let (G,
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I. Damg
ard and G.L. Mikkelsen
this is a replicated integer secret sharing of r = r1 + r2 + r3 . 0 can be written as
0 = r r = (r1 + r2 + r3 ) (r1 + r2 + r3 ) = (r1 r2 ) + (r2 r3 ) + (r3 r1 ),
and each of the three summands can be calculated by one of
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U. Maurer and S. Tessaro
this is essentially optimal. For example, for = 12 , the output length of the
given generator G needs to be slightly larger than 2k in order to achieve expansion. For comparison, the SUM construction is expanding if /k > m, wh
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R. Cramer, D. Hofheinz, and E. Kiltz
computational property. We only use a proof property of our HPS, and
obtain secrecy from our assumption on the KEM, much like in the original NY
paradigm. Hence we do not generalize the Cramer-Shoup approach to ach
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Discussion and Variants
Global parameters. Note that the set system (S, ) employed in our encryption scheme can be re-used in many instances of the scheme. (In other words,
there is no trapdoor related directly t
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O. Farr`
as and C. Padr
o
for hierarchical access structures to be matroid ports. Of course, these will be
as well necessary conditions for hierarchical access structures to be ideal.
We present first a technical lemma that apply to every integer poly
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R. Cramer, D. Hofheinz, and E. Kiltz
Decapsulation. Given sk = and c S, Dec computes
(c) = ( )(g) = ( )(g) = (u)
to derive the encapsulated key K cfw_0, 1n as in (1). Note that here it is
exploited that the functions in commute.
Theorem 1 (Definition
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R. Bendlin and I. Damg
ard
negligible
probability. Since e comes from a distribution with standard deviation
4
k q and mean 0 we get the following result from Chebyshevs inequality,
1
Pr (|e | 3 q/2) Pr (|e | t k 4 q) 2
t
where m = n3 and t =
c q
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U. Maurer and S. Tessaro
A slightly weaker statement holds in the uniform setting, where we can only
show that for every polynomial-time adversary A there exists a measure M for
which GuessA (P (W ) | g(W ) even if A is allowed to query the measure M
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D. Goldenberg and M. Liskov
g and random values, we can build an adversary A which picks a random x,
queries its E oracle on (1 (x), 2 ), (1 (x + 1), 2 ), (1 (x + 2), 2 ) when A queries
on 12 = (1 |2 ). If As oracle is the oracle to the pseudorandom p
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R. Cramer, D. Hofheinz, and E. Kiltz
Definition 4 (Commutative set system). A set system (S, ) is commutative if the functions in commute pairwise, i.e., for all , , we have
= .
3.2
Hard Set Systems
The following definition encapsulates the computati
Breathing and respiration
Ventilation: moving air in and out of lungs
External respirational: transfer gasses from air into blood
Internal respiration: dropping blood gasses from blood to body tissue
Other respiratory systems functions
1 Regulation of blo
Kidney Anatomy & Glomerular Filtration
Kidney - functional unit of urinary system, filtration of blood plasma, most blood sent to kidneys at rest,
large vascular supply
Ureter, urethra Overview of Kidney functions
Excretion - by product of hemoglobin bein
iver, Small
Regulation
L
Intestine,
Large
Intestine
&
Large surface area
Digestion: breaking things down into small components so can be absorbed
Mechanical digestion
Two types of movements:
1
2
Segmentation: mix chyme with digestive juices, keep chyme in