All reactions are equilibrium reactions
- both forward and reverse reactions occur
Equilibrium results when rate of reverse reaction equals rate of
Each reaction is characterized by its equilibrium
What is the world made of?
The material world that we live in is the macroscopic
counter part to a microscopic world of atoms & molecules.
We will become familiar with the various atoms & the
molecules they form.
Also, the states of matter & phy
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of Reaction - Hess' Law, etc.
We've discussed some physical processes - eg. dissolution of
ionic solids (salts) in water - & some chemical reactions precipitation,
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
Light & other electromagnetic radiation have both wave-like &
Atomic spectra show that electrons also have wave-like
properties - in addition to being particles.
Atoms have discrete energy levels
Ionization Energy . IE
Atoms exhibit a photoelectric effect
A gaseous atom can absorb a photon (of sufficiently high
energy) to eject an electron - ionization
h = Ephoton = IE + melectron v2/2
Entropy, the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Gibbs Free Energy & Spontaneity
& the connection to Equilibrium
Which rxns go & which do not?
1ST Law just keeps track of energy
There is a natural direction of physical & chemical
processes not explained by the 1st
We have seen how it is most favorable for atoms to have a full
outer shell (valence shell) of electrons. This is the driving
force for atomic reactivity. Atoms seek to attain this electron
configuration - either by losing, gaining or shar
Molecules have shape - egs.
Methane CH4 :
Water H2O :
Can we predict these shapes?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model
Electron pairs about an atom arrange themselves so as to
minimize the mutual electrostatic repulsion .
CHEMISTRY 1E03 - FALL 2013
These information sheets provide answers to most of your questions about the organization of the course.
We suggest that, after reading them carefully, you keep them with your notes for future reference. The
online version on AV