December 1, 2011
The Origins of Agriculture Continued
Required Reading Chapter 13
[Figure 13.3 Adoption of Agriculture]
Disadvantages of Agriculture
Skeletal evidence of declining health and nutritional status
of human populations
Examples of diseases rel
What happens to bodies after death and how to forensic anthropologists study them?
Forensic anthropologists generally do not
Make the final determination of cause or manner of death (e.g., homicide vs. suicide)
Coroner or forensic patho
The origins of agriculture and its consequences
Required reading chapter 13
Where, when, and how did it happen?
How did agriculture change human organization and human biology?
Negative outcomes of agriculture?
Ten key questions that forensic anthropologists ask.
1st is it bone?
When plastic burns it looks like a bone- it can usually be identified rather quickly
Figure 30 initially this object was identified as human bone. Later it was
identified by the an
November 21, 2011
GENUS HOMO CONTINUED
Forensic Anthropology - No Assigned Reading
[Figure 12.4 Out of- Africa vs. Multiregional models] (Table on p. 396)
- Idea of gene flow is valid
- DNA evidence does not particularly support this through eit
Homo sapiens (part II)
Required reading chp 12 (up to p. 398)
La Chapelle aux- Saints (France)
Absence of teeth
Discovered in 1908
50- year old male
Cranium is long and low, very large supraorbital ridges
Associated with animal bones, tools, etc.
He had s
Fossilization and Taphonomy
Most fossils- original biological materials replaced with minerals from burial sediments
Taphonomy: study of how bones (and other things) become buried and preserved as
Diagenesis: physical, chemical, and biolog
Why study living primates?
Required reading chapter 7
Why do we want to study primates?
We need a broad based comparative perspective
Cant only look at one species (i.e. Homo sapiens)
Framework for the interpretation of human evolution
The primate social
How does variation arise?
Read chp. 3 pp. 55-70
Nucleus- contains 46 chromosomes in each somatic cell (23 from mother, and 23 from
Figure 3.3 somatic cells- skin cell
Figure 3.4 gametes- human male sex cells
Each set of chromo
How does evolution work? (Read chapter 2)
What I learned on the internet (www.talkorigins.org)
Parrots hyoid bones and speech
Parrots have hyoid bones, birds have synod- different shaped bone
How far did early hominids transport tools?
Toth and Schick
What is a primate?
Required reading chapter 6
Three prominent tendencies in primates
1. Adaptions for life in the trees (arboreal)
2. Dietary plasticity- eat a variety of foods- some are specialized eaters
3. Increased parental investment- primary has one
Race and human variation
From last week
Explanations for variation in human skin colour
Vitamin D hypothesis
is race useful as a biological category?
environment and human variation
Figure 5.2 Blumenbachs sk
Modern human variation
Intelligent design on trial - http:/Video.pbs.org/video/980040807
Reading: chapter 5, pp. 121- 125 and 135-144
What is the evolutionary significance of skin colour?
What is race and is it biologically meaningful?
October 3, 2011
REVIEW FROM LAST WEEK:
[Q] Why does the sickle cell trait persist in some human groups?
When natural selection favors heterozygotes (AS)
They are relatively more fit than either homozygotes (AA, SS) (in this environme
How does variation arise?
Readings- chp 3 (pp. 55-70), 4
What are moles?
Clusters of melanocytes (cells) in the skin
Part genetic and part environment
Exposure to sunlight can cause moles to appear (not a mutation)
Examples of natural selection in humans
How does evolution work? (Part 3)
Developments since Darwin and Wallace
How genetic variation arises (molecular level, population level) = genetics light
The question of inheritance
19th century idea of natural selection occurred in pre-gene
How does revolution work?
Read chapter 2
Evolution occurs when you have inherited characteristics that confer an advantage
Advantageous traits increase in frequency over time
Alfred Russell Wallace
Evolution by natural sel
What makes us human?
Quadrupedal walks on all 4 feet
Bipedal walks on 2 feet
diastema a gap or space between two teeth
mya million years ago
1. Habitual bipedalism
First and earliest event- 6 million years old
Major features of bipedalism
Early Hominid Origins & Evolution
What is a Hominid?
1. Hominid best understood having two obligate behaviours:
These two come much later in the 6 big events of human history. Large brains,
speech and material cult
Absolute Methods of Dating: What is Numerical Age?
1. Dendrochronology - dating method that uses a tree-ring count to determine numerical
# of rings = # of years old.
Works because in temperate & cold regions, tree growth stops in winter &
Types of Fossils
1. Fossils are found in various types of rock, but most common in:
Sedimentary - rock formed when deposition of sediments creates distinct layers of
Produced by water carrying and dropping off tiny bits of rock, sand, and
Farming and Its Consequences
1. People didn't always have such shitty teeth as a lot of the people around the world have
today. This inconsistency has arrived within the last 10,000 years.
We switched from a diet of wild plants and animals to a diet par
Evolution: Today and Tomorrow
The Forces of Change: A Warming Planet, Increasing Population, and Shifting Technology
1. Abundant scientific evidence proves that global warming is real
Spike of about 1.3 degrees F (0.8 C) might not seem li
1. Fossils - Fossilis "Dug Up"
Studied by Palaeontologists
George Cuvier founder of Paleontology
2. Africa's Fayum Depression
Region in which many fossils, the essential evidence of the evolution of life, have
3. Darwin, Cuvier, J
Origins & Evolution of Early Homo
Homo Habilis: The First Species of the Genus Homo
The Path to Humanness: Bigger Brains, Tool Use, and Adaptive Flexibility
1. Modern humans are distinctive in:
Having large brains
Depedining on material culture of sur
The Other Living Primates
What is a Primate?
1. 3 Primate Tendencies:
Arboreal adaptation - adapted to life in trees
Dietary plasticity - eat wide variety of foods
Parental investment - invest lots of time for few offspring
2. Characteristics of