Its OK for me to have sex with someone other than my partner as long as my
partner doesnt know about it, because that way no one is hurt and so no harm is
Conclusion: Its OK for me to have sex with someone other than my pa
Denying the antecedent is not the same as denying the consequent
Example: If it were raining (r), then the grass would be wet (w). It is not raining (~r). Thus, the
grass is not wet (~w).
1. r w
3. ~w This is an invalid pattern of reasoning. Why
We often use euphemisms to be polite
When someone dies we might say passed away
The veterinarian put your favorite dog to sleep
short vs vertically challenged, bald vs follicly challenged etc.
Euphemisms / Dysphemisms and War
The CIA kills a dictator:
Ad hominem and Experts:
Are appeals to the person (authority) ever relevant?
It is relevant when you appeal to an expert
But only if the topic is within her area of expertise, she is not biased, etc.
Appealing to Einsteins views on physics is quite differ
Appeals to Insecurities:
A very common and effective marketing technique is to:
1) appeal to the listeners insecurities
E.g., popularity, looks, sexual appeal, then
2) offer them a solution (their product). E.g.?
I know that God exists, because the Bible says so. But how do you know the Bible is
accurate? Well, because its the word of God.
Appealing to the Bible as evidence for Gods existence begs the question against the atheistit
assumes that God exists
False Dilemma: Examples
Fox News: Sure its not great having the government collect our telephone records, but it is
better than having them collect our body parts!
False dilemma trading on fear mongering: either we allow
unconstitutional government survei
Chapter 1 Exercise:
Whether to go to a certain band concert
b. Lack of schedule conflicts
c. Ease of transportation
What kind of jeans to buy
c. Ethical conditions of manufacture
Which film to se
Chapter 2 Exercises
Chapter 2 Ex 3
For each of the following dialogues:
Identify the issue (hints: be specific; state in the form of a question).
Identify what type(s) of claims or judgments are involved in answering the
Testability requires that a theory or claim must be able to identify the kind of
observational evidence that will support it and the kind of that will count against it. (B&B,
A scientific prediction suggests a test (observation or
Change of deadline for exercises on the last two chapters (to be submitted on Avenue)
Chapter 12: 11:59 p.m. Saturday, June 9 Chapter 13: 7:30 p.m. Tuesday, June 12
Final exam format
Read and respond to a fictional 8-paragraph arg
The two-step procedure
Classify the particular action by its morally relevant features:1. What moral rule would
be violated?2. What evils or harms would the violation (a) cause, (b) avoid causing, (c)
3. What are the desires and beliefs of the person tow
Inquiry in philosophy: ethical relativism
Ethical relativism: what is morally right (wrong) is whatever some individual or
group thinks is morally right (wrong)
Cultural relativism: what is morally right and wrong is determined by the
customs and practi
Footnotes are important because (check all that apply):
A.they add credibility to our claims (70.59 %)
they allow others to check out the sources for our claims (100 %)
they allow us to cite the experts who suppo
Writing assignment proposal
Propose an issue for inquiry.
Include a paragraph or two in which you motivate your issue by describing a controversy,
challenge or puzzle that makes it an occasion for inquiry.
Formulate your issue as a question.
Include a pre
The spirit of inquiry
At the most general level, the spirit of inquiry involves an appreciation of reason and a
commitment to base beliefs and actions on inquiry.
Open-mindedness: open [=receptive] to challenges to our arguments, to counterevidence, to op
Colbert satirizes fear mongering (in general) with a segment called the Threat Down
Appeals to Outrage:
1) trying to harness the listeners outrage in order to persuade them, or
2) simply displaying outrage at something for the same purposeo
Former Speaker of the USA House of Representatives, Newt Gingrichs
Language, A Key Mechanism of Control (1990):
Talking points for describing Republicans (his party):
Active(ly), Building, Candid(ly), Care / Caring, Challenge, Change,
Commitment, Common S
Rhetoric: the art of persuasive speaking
Preeminent professional skill of ancient world
Children of elite all were taught persuasive public speaking
Sophists were professional rhetoricians (sophia = wise)
Like lawyersaccepted fees for teaching or arguing
Slippery Slope Fallacy: Examples
If we allow the sale of beer in convenience stores people will lose their work ethic and go only
for immediate gratification.
If we allow any restrictions on the sale of guns, eventually the government will be coming door