Lithium-polymer evolved out of the development of solid state electrolytes (solids capable of
conducting ions but that are electron insulators)
These batteries are considered solid state batteries, because their electrolytes are sol
Global warming is a result of the greenhouse effect induced by the presence of carbon
dioxide and other gases, such as methane, in the atmosphere.
These gases trap the Suns infrared radiation reflected by the ground, thus retaining the ener
Components of a Battery Cell
1. Positive electrode: an oxide or sulfide or some other compound that is capable of being
reduced during cell discharge. This electrode consumes electrons from the external circuit during
cell discharge. Examples of positive
Environmental Impact of Modern Transportation
The large number of automobiles in use around the world are
causing serious problems for the environment
The air quality, global warming issues, and depleting petroleum
resources are becoming se
History of Electric Vehicles
The first EV was built by Frenchman Gustave Trouv in 1881. It was a tricycle powered by a
0.1 hp DC motor fed by lead-acid batteries.
A vehicle similar to this was built in 1883 by two British professors.
These early realizati
History of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
The concept of a HEV is almost as old as the automobile itself. The primary purpose, however,
was not so much to lower the fuel consumption but rather to assist the IC engine to provide an
acceptable level of performanc
The sodiummetalchloride is a derivative of the sodium-sulphur battery with provisions of
overcharge and over-discharge.
The construction is similar to that of the NaS battery, but the positive sulphur electrode is
replaced by n
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Hybrids carry their own electrical generating capacity and are much more convenient than
electric cars because you dont have to plug them in.
But plug-in hybrids take that potential negative and turn it into a positive by
Nickelcadmium (NiCd) and nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries are alkaline
batteries with which electrical energy is derived from the chemical reaction of a metal
with oxygen in an alkaline electrolyte medium.
The specific energy
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) result from the reaction between nitrogen in the air and oxygen.
Theoretically, nitrogen is an inert gas. However, the high temperatures and pressures in engines
create favourable conditions for the formation of nitro