- The snails that live in shallow area, reproduce sexually, because there are more
parasites, thus different DNA combinations allow natural selection to allow
survival of the fittest
-Snails that live in deep end where there are no ducks (requi
Generosity can serve as indicator for mate quality. If an audience is there to
see you do something difficult/dangerous it is an honest indicator of quality
Hunting Large Game Honest indicator of
Parental Care: Expected to cherish young. Offsrping are vehicles of parental fitness.
Our siblings aresometimes the primary vehicles of our fitness (if you dont have any
kids), if you have kids they are secondary vehicl
Level of Help: Siblings - more likely to give high cost help than medium/low cost
Friends is opposite (more likely for low cost than high cost)
Cousins more likely for high cost than low/medium cost
Evolution Article Summaries
Article #1:Evolution of Character displacement in darwins finches
Competitor species can have evolutionary effects on each other that result in ecological
character displacement divergence in reso
Twin Studies: Rates were higher in MZ twins than DZ (proves that it is atleast
X-Linked Genes: It will be expressed in males, but not in females (homozygous X is
more rare), so
Reciprocity: Altruism to kin evolved to feel good because of indirect benefit.
Altruism to non-kin evolved to feel bad unless repaid back.
Everyday we engage in agreements/social exchanges with
Sexually antagonistic genes cont
Heritability is proportion of variation in a trait due to the effects of genes.
Beak colour is highly heritable in both sons and daughters.
High correlation between sons and da
Altruism: Action whos average effect is to benefit someone else at some cost ot the
actor, where both costs and benefits are measured in expected Darwinian Fitness
(personal reproductive success)
Why?: Darwin View: N
Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory
Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm
reserves according to the level of sperm competition (