Lecture 15: Impacts of Agriculture
1. What are the major types of food production?
- practiced on 25% of global agricultural lands
- mainly developed countries
Required labour is low because mostly is mechanized
- 8% of populat
Lecture 12- Eutrophication
1. What are the Ecological Zones of Surface Waters?
Photic, Aphotic, refer to biology notes
2. What are the Physical Processes in Lakes?
- Thermal Stratification
- Circulation patterns driven by temperature
- Maximum water densi
For households outside the reach of municipal systems
Drain distributes dissolved nutrients in field
3. What is the situation in Hamilton?
- volume treated: 124 billion L/year
- Sanitary and Storm Sewers: Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) 17
1. What is soil Water?
Types of soil water
o Hygroscopic: water that is bonded to the individual soil grains
o Capillary: water that is held in the soil by matrix forces
Returns to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration
1. What are Ecosystems?
- Ecosystem: A community of different species interacting with one another
and their environment in such a way as to perpetuate their grouping
- Perpetuate: i.e. sustain
What is a Biome?
- A large relatively distinct ter
1. What makes up an ecosystem?
- A) Interactions between spheres (bio, atmos, litho, hydro,)
- B) Elements: the building blocks of matter
o Key elements in all living organisms: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon,
hydrogen, phosphorus, sulphur: found in
Lecture 6 Nutrient Cycling
1. What are Nutrients?
Nutrients: any chemical required for the proper function of organisms
Two types: inorganic chemicals and organic chemicals
Macronutrients: required by living organisms in large quantities
Lecture 7- Soils
1. What is soil?
- a natural body consisting of layers or horizons and or organic material of
variable thickness, which differ form the parent material in their
morphological, physical, chemical, mineralogical properties and their
Lecture 2 What is
2. What is the Environment?
3. How do we study environmental problems?
4. Evaluating Environmental Science
5. Other discourses on the environment
6. Environmental Problems
9 short answer questions (5 marks each)
May have 2 parts
1 long answer questions (15 marks)
Will be marked out of 60 and is worth 35% of the exam
Must have a McMaster calculator
- Agriculture impact
- Cities and sustainability
Lecture 19: Sewage Treatment
1. What is the treatment process?
What is in raw sewage?
- Debris and grit
- Particulate organic material
Dissolved organic material
- Dissolved inorganic material
- Other: pesticides, heavy metals
Lecture 14: Acidification
What is it?
characterized by an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in
the water &/or the soil
Wet Deposition: precipitation of acids to the ground
- in the form of rain, snow, fog, or mist
- acidic water flows
Coral bleaching is happening in the Caribbean Sea. Every action causes a ripple;
ripples build into disturbing waves of change. Yucatan peninsula is the biggest tourism
growth. Coral reefs are not being protected, the
For the 6th Smog Advisory period it seems that it has a significantly enormous
amplitude variation and is sustained in equilibrium. Daytime (12:00 pm- 16:00pm)
usually consists of a high AQI, Ozone concentration and Fine Particulate Matter (FPM),
Chapter 10 - Atmosphere and
Atmosphere and Climate 144
10.1 Introduction to Atmosphere and
This chapter contains an introduction to material that is fundamental to the study of climatology
and atmospheric sciences. The chapter commences wi
Environmental Science 1B03
A2L email: berniejm
A2L email: leonil
The primary aim of this course is to introduce stude
Calculate the amount of CaCO3 required
to neutralize 100 mm of pH 4 0
precipitation on 1 ha of soil
Please note that 1 mole of CaCO3 weighs
100.0 g, and 1 ha = 100m x 100m.
Calculate the amount of CaCO3 required
to neutralize 100 mm of pH 4
sample to the tube
After 32 hours the second
(0.21 cm/s) 18 (0
Lecture 16: Hazardous Chemicals
1. What are hazardous chemicals?
- any chemical having one or more of the following attributes
o reactivity: chemically unstable
o toxicity: serious health effects
determined for all new syntheti
part a: defentions 12 of them- choose 10
Part b: short answer 5 questions (may have 2 parts)
1: Diagrams of Cycles
2: Stokes Law
1. What are the available water resources?
- a renewable resource
- ecosystems depend on freshwater
- represents only