CategoricalLogic
Propositional Logic
Cats and dogs love chew toys. C & D
Categorical Logic
Cats love chew toys.
All cats are things that love chew toys.
Universal
Particular
Affirmative
All S are P. A
Some S are P. I
Negative
No S are P. E
Some S are not
Philosophy201
CriticalThinking
Dr. C. Klatt
cklatt@uvic.ca
Chp3DeductionandInduction
Every argument has an inferential claim.
In a deductive argument the conclusion necessarily follows from the
premises.
In an inductive argument the conclusion probably fo
Philosophy201
CriticalThinking
Dr. C. Klatt
cklatt@uvic.ca
Chp3DeductionandInduction
Every argument has an inferential claim.
In a deductive argument the conclusion necessarily follows from the
premises.
In an inductive argument the conclusion probably fo
Chp6Symbols,TranslationsandTruthFunctions
Validity and Propositional Forms
It is often easy to see that one claim follows from another, but to explain why can
be difficult.
What makes an argument form valid?
A proposition is a singular statement.
E.g. Joh
Chp6Symbols,TranslationsandTruthFunctions
Validity and Propositional Forms
It is often easy to see that one claim follows from another, but to explain why can
be difficult.
What makes an argument form valid?
A proposition is a singular statement.
E.g. Joh
Philosophy201
CriticalThinking
Dr. C. Klatt
cklatt@uvic.ca
Chp3DeductionandInduction
Every argument has an inferential claim.
In a deductive argument the conclusion necessarily follows from the
premises.
In an inductive argument the conclusion probably fo
Chapter5Fallacies?
A fallacy is a defect in an argument. Fallacies occur in both deductive and
inductive arguments. An argument that has a fallacy is unsound or uncogent.
A formal fallacy results from an invalid argument form. Only deductive
arguments can
Chp8EnumerativeInduction
E.g.
40% of pine trees around Kelowna are infested with pine
beetles.
Therefore, about 40% of pine trees in BC are infested with pine
beetles.
Target population - pine trees in BC
Sample - pine trees in Kelowna
Property - infested
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Chp 9 Inference to Best Explanation
Many explanations are grounded in direct observation.
I am wearing a cast because I broke my arm playing football.
Sometimes, we want to give an explanation when no direct observations are available.
E.g. Say that your
Chp8ArgumentsbyAnalogy
Generalization (Inductive)
This Toyota has good mileage.
All Toyotas have good mileage.
(Deductive)
All Toyotas have good mileage.
My new Toyota will get good mileage.
Reasoning by Analogy
Bobs Toyota gets good mileage.
Daves Toyota
ImplicitPremises
Often in arguments premises that seem obvious are left out for reasons of
brevity and style.
It is okay to have implicit (unstated) premises as long as:
1) those who are given the argument can easily supply these unstated
premises for the
Philosophy 201
Critical Thinking
Dr. C. Klatt
cklatt@uvic.ca
What is Critical Thinking?
Need rational standards to decide whether or not a belief is worth having.
Dont let emotions cloud your judgment.
The unexamined life is not worth living.
Socrates
Pe
Categorical Logic
Propositional Logic
Cats and dogs love chew toys. C & D
Categorical Logic
Cats love chew toys.
All cats are things that love chew toys.
Universal
Particular
Affirmative
All S are P.
Some S are P.
Negative
No S are P.
Some S are not P.
Al
Categorical Logic II
Some B are not non-A.
A
B
Now write an equivalent but simpler sentence.
No non-A are B.
A
B
All non-A are B.
A
B
Reducing the Number of Terms
All photographers are non-writers.
Some editors are writers.
Therefore, some non-photographe
Chp 6 Symbols, Translations and Truth
Functions
Validity and Propositional Forms
It is often easy to see that one claim follows from another, but to explain why can
be difficult.
What makes an argument form valid?
A proposition is a singular statement.
E.
Logic & Critical Reasoning
Identifying arguments
The Object of Analysis
In logic and critical reasoning one studies
argumentation. From the perspective of
critical reasoning an argument is specific
kind of object of analysis.
An argument is not the same t
Philosophy 201
Practice Test #3
Section I: Translations (7 x 3 marks each = 21 marks)
Use the abbreviations given to symbolize the following statements.
R = The team is well rested.
C = The crowd is behind us.
T = Ticket sales are good.
W = We win the gam
Practice Test#5
Section I: Short Answer (2 x 7 + 6 = 20
marks)
a) Which of Mills methods would be used to
evaluate the following causal relationship?
What is the most likely cause and why?
A negative correlation is found between the
fluctuations in the em
Philosophy 201
Practice Test #5
Section I: Short Answer (2 x 7 + 6 = 20 marks)
a) Which of Mills methods would be used to evaluate the following causal
relationship? What is the most likely cause and why?
A negative correlation is found between the fluctu
Philosophy 201
Practice Test #4
Dr. C. Klatt
Section I: Categorical Translations [10 x 2 marks each = 20 marks]
a) Ducks are not geese. No ducks are geese.
b) Only donuts are on sale. All things on sale are donuts.
c) The rubber boots are muddy. All thing
Practice Assignment 6
Use the abbreviations given to translate the following English sentences into symbolic
logic.
R = John will get a raise.
W = John works hard.
I = John insults his boss.
P = John is promoted.
C = John is complemented on his work.
1) J
Chp 6 Symbols, Translations and Truth
Functions
Validity and Propositional Forms
It is often easy to see that one claim follows from another, but to explain why can
be difficult.
What makes an argument form valid?
A proposition is a singular statement.
E.
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Lecture notes, lectures 1 - 13 - And mid term summary
Critical Thinking (University Of Victoria)
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Phil 201: Critical Thinking
Week One
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