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CHAPTER 12
FREE ENERGY
12.1 Review of Internal Energy and Enthalpy
We are by now familiar with the equations
dU = TdS PdV and dH = TdS + VdP,
and with the ideas that the increase in the internal ene
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CHAPTER 2
PARTIAL DERIVATIVES
2.1 Introduction
Any text on thermodynamics is sure to be liberally sprinkled with partial derivatives on
almost every page, so it may be helpful here to give a brief s
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CHAPTER 8
HEAT CAPACITY, AND THE EXPANSION OF GASES
8.1 Heat Capacity
Definition: The heat capacity of a body is the quantity of heat required to raise its temperature by
one degree. Its SI unit is
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CHAPTER 13
EXPANSION, COMPRESSION AND THE TdS EQUATIONS
13.1 Coefficient of Expansion
Notation: In an ideal world, Id use , , respectively for the coefficients of linear,
area and volume expansion.
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CHAPTER 10
THE JOULE AND JOULE-THOMSON EXPERIMENTS
10.1 Introduction
Equation 8.4.3, TV 1 = constant , tells us how to calculate the drop in temperature if a gas
expands adiabatically and reversibly
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CHAPTER 5
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
We shall be considering what happens when we perform certain processes on various systems. The
processes will usually entail either doing work on a system or adding
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CHAPTER 15
ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION
15.1
Introduction
One way to cool a gas is as follows. First compress it isothermally. This means compress
it in a vessel that isnt insulated, and wait for the g
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CHAPTER 14
THE CLAUSIUS-CLAPEYRON EQUATION
Before starting this chapter, it would probably be a good idea to re-read Sections 9.2 and
9.3 of Chapter 9.
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation relates the la
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CHAPTER 9
ENTHALPY
9.1 Enthalpy
Enthalpy is sometimes known as "heat content", but "enthalpy" is an interesting and unusual word,
so most people like to use it. Etymologically, the word "entropy" is
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CHAPTER 16
NERNSTS HEAT THEOREM AND THE THIRD LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
16.1 Nernsts Heat Theorem
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Walther Nernst (Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1920) had investigat
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Carter 2-3.
(a) The gas satisfies the ideal gas equation equation PV = NRT, which can also be
written Pv = RT/ , where v is the specific volume or volume per unit mass and is the
molecular weight.
19
But we have already shown that AV 2
RT , and so the work done on the gas is
1
2
But T2
1
T,
4 1
R(T1
T2 ).
and therefore the work done on the gas is
3
8
RT1 .
=
Carter 3-4. Volume of 10 kg of ice =
28
Carter 4-5. Note: The atomic weight (mass) of Cu is 63.5 amu, not 29 as given,
Specific heat capacity =
2.6 10 4
63.5
409.449 J kg 1 K 1.
Heat (energy) required to raise mass m through 100 K = 4094
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CHAPTER 3
TEMPERATURE
3.1 Introduction
During our studies of heat and thermodynamics, we shall come across a number of simple, easy-tounderstand terms such as entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, c
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CHAPTER 11
HEAT ENGINES
11.1 Introduction
In my rarefied, theoretical, academic and unpractical mind, a heat engine consists of a
working substance obeying some idealized equation of state such as t
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hit the bag with an upwards-directed impulsive force, but this force does not move
through a distance, and so no further work is done on or by the bag. Thus the net work
done on the bag during the
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CHAPTER 7
THE FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics, and Internal Energy
The First Law of thermodynamics is:
The increase of the internal energy of a system is
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CHAPTER 4
THERMAL CONDUCTION
4.0 The Error Function
Before we start this chapter, lets just make sure that we are familiar with the error function erf a.
We may need it during this chapter.
Here is