Chapter 6: Assumptions
Hidden, unstated ideas and reasons that must be uncovered in order to critically evaluate the
Def: Unstated belief that supports the explicit reasoning that supports what
An Assumption is:
1. Hidden, unstated
2. Author tak
Chapter 3: Issues and Conclusions
-When we critically think, we try to evaluate the reasoning behind the conclusion
Conclusion: refers to the authors intended message whose purpose is to shape your
beliefs, and/or behavior
-the message what the speaker or
Chapter 5: What Words or Phrases are Ambiguous?
What is Ambiguity?
Ambiguous- the meaning of some terms, words, or phrases is not clear or obvious and
must be defined in the context exactly what it means before we make a critical thinking
Chapter 2: Critical Thinking as a Social Activity
Oftentimes, the conclusions we accept are the result of interactions with others.
To be the most successful at this, we must keep an open mind.
Values are ideas that we think are worthwhile
-> Standards o
Chapter 7: Fallacies
Fallacies are often hidden or unstated ideas and reasons that must be uncovered to critically
evaluate an argument.
-Can be found ANYWHERE in the passage: conclusions, assumptions, etc
3 Common Tricks
1) They may use incorrect assumpt
How Good Is the Evidence: Intuition, Personal Experience, Testimonials, and
Appeals to Authority?
When its a common knowledge assertion, you dont need any evidence
1. If there is no evidence provided, it is an assumption
Ex: Smoking causes lung
Chapter 10: Are There Rival Causes?
Rival cause plausible alternative explanation that can explain why an outcome has occurred
Often, one cause is insufficient to explain an outcome. There is usually more than one
contributory causes for an outcome.
Chapter 11: Are the Statistics Deceptive?
When we present statistical evidence, it might be wrong.
If we are looking at sample, we need to ask: Are the questions misleading?
* Often, people use unknowable statistics to impress or alarm in large numbers. T
Principles for analyzing analogies:
Relevance 1) Relevance of the similarities shared by the primary and secondary
analogues. 2) Number of similarities. 3) Nature and degree of disanalogy. 4)
Number of primary analogues. 5) Diversity among the primary an