Homework 1, Due September 15, 2016
The purpose of this exercise is to get you to start thinking about what actual
sounds occur in a word. It is part of the deconstruction of our dependence on
English orthography. (10pts total)
1. How many distinct segment
19 September 2016
Welsh You Were Here
The Welsh script is one that dates back quite recently in our history as humanity. The
earliest depictions of Welsh writing root back to the 6th century, though some p
Language and Linguistics
Professors name, office, phone, Email
Professors home department (English, Comp. Lit.,
Goals of the course
Grading for the course
Participation and in-class participation
Rules that govern the combination and place of sounds in a
Consider some phonotactic rules for English
English words can begin or end with more than consonant
(but only certain ones)
snot [snt] a
Consonants and vowels
Speech Sounds Part II
Consonants can be described as always being
produced with various degrees of restriction
(including complete closure) in the vocal tract
Vowels are described as being produced with a
relatively open v
Sounds not Found in
The nature of differences
Sounds in languages other than English can differ
along several parameters
Sound may have features found independently in
English: palatal place, nasal manner
But a novel combination of fe
Diagram of communication
Speech Sounds I
Process of communication
One speaker has a thought to convey
S/he produces vocal sounds connected to that meaning
Types of phonetics
Phonetics covers three distinct fields of study related
Language and Culture
linguistic anthropology : the study of the relationship
between language and culture
culture : the customs, arts, social institutions, and
achievements of a particular nation, people, or other socia
Talking about words
What composes a word?
Is a word a real mental construct?
If so, how can we define it?
(Word Formation and Words)
Word order (movement)
Note problematic cases of clitics, th vs. the
What is a language?!
May be defined by mutual intelligibility!
Sociocultural factors may get in the way!
People speaking Scots are likely to assume that they speak
English, just like we assume we do!
What is writing?
What is writing?
the activity or skill of marking coherent words on
paper and composing text
a sequence of letters, words, or symbols marked on
paper or some other surface
in writing, visual signs are in a regu
pragmatics: the study of the ways people use language
in actual conversations
Study of meaning at the utterance level
How changes in context alter meaning
Why some things are inappropriate and some
(Word Order and Word Groupings)
The arrangement of words and phrases to create
sentences in a language
Includes such things as
Syntax and meaning
What do the following sentences mean?
The lady hit the man with an umb
Question of the day
Meaning at the Level of the Sentence
What is semantics?
What does the word tree mean?
Recall our discussion of word meaning
Where does meaning originate?
Types of meaning - lexical
Semantics is the study of mean
LING 106, Language and Linguistics
Instructions on Preparing For the Discussion Exam
You will be asked to demonstrate a comprehensive, general, scientific understanding of
linguistics and how that understanding applies or might apply to everyda