Important Terms in Virology
virion - complete virus particle (aka virus particle)
Capsid (coat) - the protein shell encasing the viral genome
nucleocapsid (core) - nucleic acid + protein, the discrete substructure within the virion of
Structurally, these are large, enveloped viruses with dsDNA and tegument proteins
between the capsid and envelope.
Biologically, they all have both lytic and latent lifecycles.
This is an alpha-herpesvirus. Spread b
DNA viruses (Parvoviruses, Papoviruses, Poxviruses)
The DNA viruses include Parvoviruses, Papoviruses, and Poxviruses.
These can be small because dont need to encode own replication enzymes. On the other
hand, these viruses generally must infect
Retroviruses and HIV
Retroviruses are enveloped in host cell membrane including MHC I and II antigens.
Surface glycoprotein gp120 mediates the interaction between virus and cellular receptor.
It is a target for neutralizing antibodies and kille
Antiviral Drugs I
Influenza A and B antiviral drugs
These drugs have early effects and late effects:
1. Early effect is to inhibit the viral envelope ion channel M2. M2 mediates
acidification of the virion which causes
HIV in the blood turns over very rapidly. T1/2 is six hours for virus particles in plasma,
and 30% of the virus pool turns over each day.
Quiescent helper-T cells are a reservoir of permanently integrated viral DNA.
Thus, the vir
Hepatitis can be infectious or non-infectious.
Non-infectious causes include alcohol use and use of tylenol or other medications.
Infectious causes can be nonviral or viral (CMV, EBV, HIV, Hepatitis viruses).
Hepatitis A is the m
Properties that facilitate GI infections include resistance to acid, proteases, and bile salts.
Rotaviruses are the most common cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants. These cause
of all cases of diarrhea in
Pathology of Viral Infections
Improved hygiene is generally good but not in the case of polio. The paralytic form of
polio is a function of clean environments and children not getting exposed as babies.
Tropism is the ability of a virus to enter
Intro to Virology
Viruses are obligate intracellular organisms.
Viruses encode structural assembly proteins and enzymatic or replicative functions.
The most important antigens are on the surface of the virion.
Viruses are grouped first based on
Plus-Strand RNA Viruses
The plus-strand RNA viruses to know are Picornaviruses, Flaviviruses, Togaviruses, and
Coronaviruses. Their RNA can be directly translated into viral proteins, so their
genomes themselves are infectious. Utilize cellular
Negative RNA Strand Viruses
The first step of replication for negative strand viruses is to synthesize the positive strand.
These viruses bring RNA polymerase as part of the incoming virion, in contrast to
positive strand viruses which synthesiz
Topic 4 Fundamentals of Virus Structure, Diversity and Replication
Putting Sizes into Context:
- Magnify 1 million xs the cell = size of lecture hall
- Herpes virus = baseball, membrane = plastic bag around it
- Polio virus = squash ball
*As the nucleocap
WOV notes Topic 4c Ebolavirus A82V and topic 4c Other Strategies
Why did the Guinea 2013 EBOV strain spread so quickly and why was it so
Look at the phylogeny of EBOV isolate sequences and identify any mutations
conserved among the more virule
VIRUSES IN THE NEWS
Viruses start when they make the leap from one species to another, usually from
animal to human
o Example: Ebola came from primates or jungles
o More chance of transmission in a capital city (lots of people, lots of interactio
Topic 1 Viruses in the News
Emile Ouamouno first human case of Eblola outbreak
A graph of case counts keeps track of how many people get sick to show how well were doing.
Ebola Taxonomy: Order= mononegavrales (single neg. sense RNA genome)
- ssRNA non coding
- No capsid
- Infectious to PLANTS
- parasites of cellular transcription proteins
- Small enough so it doesnt require special uncoating
Genome replication in nucleus circular viroid RNA enters cell and nucleus
Topic 3- How Virology Informed Molecular Biology
RNA too as genetic material (EXAM- know TMV experiment)
5 capping of mRNA transcripts (vaccinia virus)
Splicing of introns out in eukaryotes (adenovirus)
Inhibitors of cellular apoptosis
WOV Final Review
Multipartite and segmented genomes are the same thing. Their genetic material is
distributed over more than one segment. Talked about in Dr. Mengs lecture!
Multicomponent virus is where the genome is separated into different components
WOV Virotherapy Overview of oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy
- Using viruses to treat disease
Oncolytic Virotherapy use of viruses to specifically replicate in and destroy
tumor cells. We can engineer viruses to be safer and more tumor specific. By
Topic 2 Viruses as unique microbes
Illnesses were thought to be due to
Divine intervention (i.e. gays getting HIV)
Imbalance of earth/water/air/fire
Marcus Terentius Varro
Noticed people near swamps got sick, concluded that swamps breed minute creatur
World of Viruses Topic 5 Notes Pathogenesis
Cell wins when:
- No receptor on the cell therefore no infection
- Receptor is present on the cell but the virus is blocked by Ab
- Virus infects cell but replication is inhibited by interferon OR cell
Plant Virology: A Brief Overview Dr. Meng
Tulips that are stripped is due to a virus, not natural!
Papaya ringspot virus very fast acting
Once these papaya fields are infected nothing else to do but destroy it all and
wait a few years (bc virus will sta
WOV Topic 4b notes Transcription and Genome Replication
- Stimulates DNA replication
- 45 nm Icosahedron T=7
- BUT all capsomers in SV40 are pentameric
- Circular dsDNA with nucleosomes
- Visualized by EM which is usually hard to do but he added cyto
Topic 6 Prevention and Control
Physical Barriers to infection
- Keratinized (unbroken) skin
- Skin surface, acidic and dry, colonized with good bacteria
- Epithelial layers (lungs, gut etc.) with tight junctions preventing pathogen
from getting any furthe
Intro to Infectious Diseases
Calories/food are very important. So is clean water.
Infectious agents usually are in the inflamed tissue, so it can be be stained, cultured, and tested.
Symptoms of disease due to inflammation, swelling (capillary p