CHAPTER ONE: INTRO TO RESEARCH
Lay People
- Intuition can be a good thing but there can be limitations
o People sometimes think they know things they dont really know
o Hindsight bias: the tendency to think we could have predicted something we probably co
January 14th 2015
Phase 2
Scientific method
Make Observation
Invent Hypothesis to Explain Observation
Research Hypothesis
A specific and falsifiable prediction regarding the relationship between or among
two or more variables
Example
BAD Hypothesis: V
January 12th 2015
Developing the Research Hypothesis
Research starts with you:
What topics interest you?
Phase 1:
Observation and intuition
1. It is possible to develop research ideas on the basis of intuition or personal
observations
2. Intuition alone
January 9th 2015
OVERVIEW
1. Challenges to Psychological Research
Pseudoscience, image as just being common sense, intuition
2. Goals of Behavioural Research
Applied vs. Basic
3. Approaches to Behavioural Research
Descriptive
Correlational
Experiment
PSYC*2360- Introduction to Research Methods
January 7th 2015
OVERVIEW
1. Challenges to Behavioural Research
Pseudoscience, image as just being common sense, intuition
2. Goals of Behavioural Research
Applied vs. Basic
3. Approaches to Behavioural Resear
February 23rd 2015
P values
1. Two sided p values
Use to test research hypotheses
Two sided p values take into consideration that unusual outcomes may occur
in more than one way
2. One sided p values
Can be used in some special cases
One tailed tests
0
February 9th 2015
Samples and Populations
Research findings are based on samples drawn from populations
Inferential statistics allow us to infer what the population is like, based on sample
data
Two Group Means
Question: Are there sex-related difference
February 11th 2015
Central Limit Theorem
Given a population with mean and variance 2, the sampling distribution of the
mean for sample sizes of n will:
1. Have mean equal to
2. Have variance equal to 2/n
a) Standard error: (i.e. SD of the sampling distr
February 4th 2015
Simple Random Sampling
Each person in the person in the population has an equal chance of being selected
1. Sampling Frame
a) A complete list of the people in the population
2. Random Selection
a) SECRET WEAPON
Obtaining Randomness
Sys
February 6th 2015
Naturalistic Research
Designed to describe and measure the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of people
and animals as it occurs in their everyday lives
Observational Research: Jane Goodall
Studied chimps
Observed and recorded their be
February 2nd 2015
Surveys
Involve the use of self-report measured variables in descriptive research
Can be used to collect either qualitative or quantitative data
Steps in Developing Surveys
1. Identify
Types of questions to use
Types of instrument to
April 1st 2015
Quasi-experimental Designs
Random assignment is not always possible
1. Rules out true experiment
2. No manipulation of IV just measured variables
May still want to infer causality
Quasi-experimental design: a correlational research desig
PSYC 2360
Lecture 7: Writing a Research Proposal
Structure of your research Proposal
Introduction to the problem (sample paragraph in lecture slides)
o Citations after almost every sentence
o Refer to this to see format
Review of literature (sample paragr
PSYC 2360
Lecture 5: Ethics in research
Outline
o Historical background
o Duty to participants
Protecting participants from harm
Freedom of choice
Honestly describing research
o Duty to science
o Key terms
o Scenarios
Historical Background
o Prior to WW2
PSYC 2360
Lecture 16: One-Way Designs Continued
Analysis of Variation (ANOVA): A demonstration
Radishes and Cookies
o Two studies
o Independent variable
Use of strength of will
Radishes Vs. Chocolate Chip Cookies Vs. Control
o Dependent Variable
Depletion
January 16th 2015
ETHICS CONTINUED
Deceptions
Learner is not a subject
Electrical shocks not really being applied
Learners screams of pain are not real
Experiment is not really about memorization
Important Questions
Is it right to withhold informatio
January 19th 2015
ETHICS CONTINUED
Replicating the Milgram Study
What changes would be needed for the study to be conducted ethically today?
Burger (2007)
1. 79% of Milgrams participants who continued past 150 volts went all the way
2. Stopping at this
CHAPTER 5
Random error is self-cancelling
Systematic error increases/decreases the scores of the measured variable
Reliability: degree to which
the measure is free of random error
Test-Retest Reliability: extent to which scores on the same measured variab
Lucid Dreaming
1
Running head: EFFECTS OF TIME OF DAY AND DURATION OF SLEEP ON LUCID
DREAMING
Effects of Time of Day and Duration of Sleep on Lucid Dreaming
Marika Gumienny-Matsuo (0841941)
University of Guelph
Lucid Dreaming
2
Abstract
Although we are no
Lucid Dreaming
1
Running head: EFFECTS OF TIME OF DAY AND DURATION OF SLEEP ON LUCID
DREAMING
Effects of Time of Day and Duration of Sleep on Lucid Dreaming
Marika Gumienny-Matsuo (0841941)
University of Guelph
Lucid Dreaming
2
Abstract
Although we are no
March 27th 2015
External Validity
Measures the extent to which research findings can be generalized to other
participants, settings, or ways of measuring variables
Boundary conditions: factors that limit generalization of results
Generalization
Extent
March 16th 2015
Interactions
A significant interaction indicates the effect of one IV on the DV differs across the
levels of the other IV
How to Recognize Interactions
Look at the line graph if the lines are not parallel, then there is an interaction
Ho
March 25th 2015
Experimental Control and Internal Validity
Threats to the Validity of Research
Threats to statistical conclusion validity
Threats to construct validity
Threats to internal validity
Threats to external validity
Statistical Conclusion Va
March 13th 2015
Factorial Designs I
Causal Attributes:
Finding:
1. When interpreting another persons behaviour, we take social context into
account
2. But only when we have the resources (i.e. time, mental energy, etc.)
Gilbert et al. (1988)
1. Person p
March 11th 2015
Variance due to Random Error
1. Step 1: Look at the deviation of individual scores from the condition mean
2. Step 2: Pool this variance across conditions to get your variance due to error
Within groups variance
Results
Analysis of Varian
March 6th 2015
Counterbalancing
Order conditions so each occurs equally often in each position
Latin square design
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Key to ANOVA: a method of quantifying distance between group means
Are they further apart than we could exp
March 4th 2015
Experimental Research: One-way Designs
The experimental design:
Correlation
1. All variables measured
2. Predictor variables: what we use to explain differences in the outcome variable
3. Outcome variable: the thing we are studying/ trying
March 2nd 2015
Correlational Design
Research Designs
We have a variable we want to study (i.e. success in university)
1. Measure university GPA (operational definition)
2. What explains variance in university GPA?
Research Designs
1. Correlational
Measu
January 26th 2015
Reliability and Validity of Measures
Ask participant to aims for bulls eye. Have them throw three darts. Measure where they
land, and use the average position to infer where the participant is aiming.
Valid: it makes sense that the pers
January 28th 2015
Reliability
The extent to which a measure is free from random error
Assess reliability:
1. Interrator Reliability
2. Internal Consistency
3. Test Re-test
4. Equivalent Forms
Interrator Reliability
The extent to which different judges/