CHAPTER ONE: INTRO TO RESEARCH
Lay People
 Intuition can be a good thing but there can be limitations
o People sometimes think they know things they dont really know
o Hindsight bias: the tendency to think we could have predicted something we probably co
January 26th 2015
Reliability and Validity of Measures
Ask participant to aims for bulls eye. Have them throw three darts. Measure where they
land, and use the average position to infer where the participant is aiming.
Valid: it makes sense that the pers
January 28th 2015
Reliability
The extent to which a measure is free from random error
Assess reliability:
1. Interrator Reliability
2. Internal Consistency
3. Test Retest
4. Equivalent Forms
Interrator Reliability
The extent to which different judges/
January 21st 2014
After many years of research, what does intelligence mean?
Theoretical construct = conceptual variable + all operational definitions that we
believe measure the conceptual variable
Operational Definitions
Things to consider:
1. How wel
January 19th 2015
ETHICS CONTINUED
Replicating the Milgram Study
What changes would be needed for the study to be conducted ethically today?
Burger (2007)
1. 79% of Milgrams participants who continued past 150 volts went all the way
2. Stopping at this
January 16th 2015
ETHICS CONTINUED
Deceptions
Learner is not a subject
Electrical shocks not really being applied
Learners screams of pain are not real
Experiment is not really about memorization
Important Questions
Is it right to withhold informatio
January 14th 2015
Phase 2
Scientific method
Make Observation
Invent Hypothesis to Explain Observation
Research Hypothesis
A specific and falsifiable prediction regarding the relationship between or among
two or more variables
Example
BAD Hypothesis: V
January 12th 2015
Developing the Research Hypothesis
Research starts with you:
What topics interest you?
Phase 1:
Observation and intuition
1. It is possible to develop research ideas on the basis of intuition or personal
observations
2. Intuition alone
January 9th 2015
OVERVIEW
1. Challenges to Psychological Research
Pseudoscience, image as just being common sense, intuition
2. Goals of Behavioural Research
Applied vs. Basic
3. Approaches to Behavioural Research
Descriptive
Correlational
Experiment
PSYC*2360 Introduction to Research Methods
January 7th 2015
OVERVIEW
1. Challenges to Behavioural Research
Pseudoscience, image as just being common sense, intuition
2. Goals of Behavioural Research
Applied vs. Basic
3. Approaches to Behavioural Resear
March 2nd 2015
Correlational Design
Research Designs
We have a variable we want to study (i.e. success in university)
1. Measure university GPA (operational definition)
2. What explains variance in university GPA?
Research Designs
1. Correlational
Measu
March 4th 2015
Experimental Research: Oneway Designs
The experimental design:
Correlation
1. All variables measured
2. Predictor variables: what we use to explain differences in the outcome variable
3. Outcome variable: the thing we are studying/ trying
CHAPTER 5
Random error is selfcancelling
Systematic error increases/decreases the scores of the measured variable
Reliability: degree to which
the measure is free of random error
TestRetest Reliability: extent to which scores on the same measured variab
Lucid Dreaming
1
Running head: EFFECTS OF TIME OF DAY AND DURATION OF SLEEP ON LUCID
DREAMING
Effects of Time of Day and Duration of Sleep on Lucid Dreaming
Marika GumiennyMatsuo (0841941)
University of Guelph
Lucid Dreaming
2
Abstract
Although we are no
Lucid Dreaming
1
Running head: EFFECTS OF TIME OF DAY AND DURATION OF SLEEP ON LUCID
DREAMING
Effects of Time of Day and Duration of Sleep on Lucid Dreaming
Marika GumiennyMatsuo (0841941)
University of Guelph
Lucid Dreaming
2
Abstract
Although we are no
March 27th 2015
External Validity
Measures the extent to which research findings can be generalized to other
participants, settings, or ways of measuring variables
Boundary conditions: factors that limit generalization of results
Generalization
Extent
March 16th 2015
Interactions
A significant interaction indicates the effect of one IV on the DV differs across the
levels of the other IV
How to Recognize Interactions
Look at the line graph if the lines are not parallel, then there is an interaction
Ho
March 25th 2015
Experimental Control and Internal Validity
Threats to the Validity of Research
Threats to statistical conclusion validity
Threats to construct validity
Threats to internal validity
Threats to external validity
Statistical Conclusion Va
March 13th 2015
Factorial Designs I
Causal Attributes:
Finding:
1. When interpreting another persons behaviour, we take social context into
account
2. But only when we have the resources (i.e. time, mental energy, etc.)
Gilbert et al. (1988)
1. Person p
March 11th 2015
Variance due to Random Error
1. Step 1: Look at the deviation of individual scores from the condition mean
2. Step 2: Pool this variance across conditions to get your variance due to error
Within groups variance
Results
Analysis of Varian
March 6th 2015
Counterbalancing
Order conditions so each occurs equally often in each position
Latin square design
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Key to ANOVA: a method of quantifying distance between group means
Are they further apart than we could exp
February 23rd 2015
P values
1. Two sided p values
Use to test research hypotheses
Two sided p values take into consideration that unusual outcomes may occur
in more than one way
2. One sided p values
Can be used in some special cases
One tailed tests
0
February 9th 2015
Samples and Populations
Research findings are based on samples drawn from populations
Inferential statistics allow us to infer what the population is like, based on sample
data
Two Group Means
Question: Are there sexrelated difference
February 11th 2015
Central Limit Theorem
Given a population with mean and variance 2, the sampling distribution of the
mean for sample sizes of n will:
1. Have mean equal to
2. Have variance equal to 2/n
a) Standard error: (i.e. SD of the sampling distr
Research Methods Chapter Summaries
Chapter 1
Introduction to research:
behavioural research helps guide public policy
The goal of behavioural research is to discover, among other things, how people perceive their
world, how they think and feel, how they
CHAPTER ONE
BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH

Behavioural research: research designed to study the thoughts, feelings, and
behaviour of human beings and animals
Behavioural scientists draw their conclusions about human behaviour from
systematic collections and analysi
LECTURE WEEK ONE: CHAPTER ONE  INTRO AND CHAPTER TWO  HYPOTHESIS
Ways of knowing:
Logic incorporated into scientific method but logic alone is not enough
Authority experts say (expert bias)
Popularity everyone knows that, truth is not a popularity co