Lecture 1: DNA, RNA Synthesis; DNA Recombination
Information (AA or nucleotide sequence) cannot pass from protein to protein/nucleic acid. It
can be passed through DNA or RNA replication, as well as transcription, reverse transcription
Lecture 6: Bacterial Cells
no cytoskeleton or endocytic vesicles, movement via flagella, etc.
Prokaryotes divided into eubacteria (human pathogens included) and archaea (extreme). They
may be classified by living conditions (thermophiles, etc), cell wall
Lecture 4: Molecular Genetics Methods I
Remember that restriction enzymes need ligase to be joined.
Plasmids as vectors usually have an origin of replication, antibiotic resistance gene, and site for
insertion. Allows easy cloning and/or production of pro
Lecture 3: Mutation and DNA Repair
Auxotrophs are mutants deficient in the synthesis of an essential compound, and require it in the
growth medium. Wild type functional individuals are called prototrophs. You can order the
steps in the synthesis pathway b
Lecture 2: Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis
Start codon: AUG. Stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA.
Translation mediated by tRNA. It has a T-loop, D-loop, Acceptor end with a CCA tail, and
Anticodon or decoding end. There are only 30-40 tRNAs for 61 codons coding
Lecture 8: Bacterial Gene Transfer
Mostly mediated by plasmids, transposable elements, and phages/viruses.
Phage consist of DNA/RNA in a protein coat. They attach to cell surface, inject genome, and
express genes. A lytic infection involves assembly of hu
Molecular Bio Review Notes
Describe hydrogen bonding / base pairing / purines vs. pyrimidines.
Purines adenine/guanine have two rings
Pyrimidines thymine/cytosine have one ring
C-G has 3 hydrogen bonds (more stable at higher temps), whereas A-T only forms
Lecture 9: Drugs and Transposition
Drugs may be bacteriocidal (kill them) or bacteriostatic (stop their growth). Most antibiotics
isolated from bacteria and fungi that try to kill their neighbors.
Drug resistance can come from: altering the drug, altering
Lecture 11: Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Euks have 3 RNA pols. I = rRNA, II = mRNA, III = tRNA.
Producing a mature mRNA involves initiation/synthesis of RNA by RNA pol II, adding 5 cap,
splicing, cleavage and polyadenylation, and nuclear export. A transcrip
Lecture 10: Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis
Kochs postulates gave criteria for assigning causality between a microorganism and a disease.
It must be found in all cases, isolated from the host, reproduce the original disease when
reintroduced to a hos