Localization and Functional Neuroanatomy
A Functional System is composed of a neuron population and its end organ.
Sensory input: vibration, touch, pain, temperature, vision, smell taste, hear, balance
Motor output: voluntary; visceral (focus, salivate, d
Intro to Neuropathology
Neuronal reactions to injury:
1. acute injury red neurons seen right after ischemic, toxic, or infectious insult
3. axonal reactions and neuronal inclusions
The main immunohistochemical marker
Introduction to Neuroimaging
Approach to neuroradiology
What are the symptoms?
What are you looking for?
CT (computed tomography)
- Bone, blood, pathology is white; CSF is black; hard to distinguish white
vs gray matter
- Useful for a
Migraine and Other Headaches
Primary headaches come from within the brains pain centers (trigeminal nucleus, thalamus,
periaqueductal gray). These are medically and anatomically benign, but can be debilitating.
Migraine is a primary headache.
Treatments are generally used to prevent vasodilation of the dura, activation of brainstem nuclei
(locus ceruleus, raphe), and activation of the trigeminal nucleus.
Acute Treatment of Headaches
-NSAIDS and Caffeine both red
Nervous System Trauma Pathology
Trauma to the brain is usually complicated by secondary injuries such as edema, herniation,
infarcts, or hemorrhage.
Non-depressed fractures have a linear pattern. Depressed fractures are caused by blunt trauma,
Control of Consciousness
Limbic system hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus. These areas control affect, memory, mood.
Cerebral cortex controls language, perception, planning, attention
Brainstem thalamic reticular activating system (RAS) c
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Stroke)
Ischemic stroke is a focal neuro deficit lasting >24 hrs., caused by an interruption of blood supply.
TIA is like a stroke, but the deficit completely reverses within 24 hrs. Most TIAs last a few minutes.
Stroke and Hemorrhage Pathology
Blood flow matches electrical activity. Blood flow to gray matter is greater than to white matter.
Arteries to the cortex and deep nuclei
Internal Carotid arteries supply the anterior circulation: ACA, MCA, anteri