The objectives on p. 1 correlate poorly to the order and emphasis of material in
- Gross anatomy: the pericardium is a double-layered sac that envelopes the
heart and attaches to the root of the great vessels.
Pathology of Myocarditis and Cardiomyopathy
Characterized by monocytic infiltration and necrosis of myocytes.
Presents acutely with heart failure, arrythmia, or death, often preceded by viral illness.
Serum creatinine will be elevate
Congestive Heart Failure
CHF and Hemorrhage cause the exact same neurohormone response, since the baroreceptors
sense the same feeling. The difference is that in hemorrhage it is temporary, but in CHF
the neurohormones are permanently active.
There are two isovolumic periods, which are the dark shaded areas (B and E). Systole is part C.
Initial filling of the ventricle is rapid because of the passive gradient. The gradient is expended
by mid-diastole, when the atrium the
ACE is a zinc metalloenzyme in vascular endothelium. It converts AGT I II, but also
catabolizes bradykinin and substance P. ACE inhibitors (-pril) reversibly bind zinc.
ARBs (AGT II Receptor Blockers) (-sartan) have a sim
Pathophysiology of Angina Pectoris
Angina is the sign of myocardial ischemia. Main presentation is retrosternal chest pressure.
Coronary flow reserve is the maximal increase in coronary blood flow from vasodilation above
resting levels. Demand
Pathology of Heart Ischemia
Forms of Ischemic Injury to the Heart
1. Coagulation necrosis, often seen with CAD. Myocytes become necrotic. Appear grossly pale.
2. Vacuolar change occurs in chronically ischemic myocytes.
3. *Contraction-band necro
Genetics of Heart Failure
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
HCM is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults.
Echocardiogram shows enlarged asymmetric LV causing LV outflow tract obstruction and
Pathology of Heart Muscle Disease
- Def: leukocytic infiltration of heart muscle with myocyte necrosis, that is not
- Presentation: acute heart failure/arrhythmia/death, ESR, leukocytosis,
impaired LV function and decrease