Contraceptives can also be used to treat acne, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, etc.
Contraceptives are absorbed in the small intestine.
In the 1940s, it was discovered that the Trillium root contained diosgenin, which could be used
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
*PCOS is defined by chronic oligo-ovulation, oligo-menorrhea, hirsutism, and androgen excess.
Polycystic ovaries are usually present but not a required criterion for diagnosis.
Other common features are obesity,
Labor = regular, painful contractions resulting in effacement and dilation of the cervix.
Preterm = the period between 24-37 weeks gestational age.
Bacterial Vaginosis = shift in the normal flora.
The clinical presentation includes
Maternal Physiologic Changes in Pregnancy
The oocyte arrests in the diplotene stage of the 1st meiotic division (1st polar body released).
division completed at fertilization (2nd polar body released).
The trophoblast forms two layers:
Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia
-Gestational HTN has no renal failure.
-Mild pre-eclampsia is HTN (>140/90) plus proteinuria.
-Severe pre-eclampsia is HTN (>160/110) plus proteinuria. There is often oliguria, nausea,
aura/scotoma, and RUQ pain signa
Diseases of the Uterine Corpus
Uterine corpus consists of the myometrium and endometrium. It derives from mesoderm.
The endometrium has glandular (epithelial) and stromal cells. It has a basalis layer and a
menstrually-cycling functionalis layer
Pathology of the Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes
Ovaries have surface epithelium, sex-cord/stromal cells (granulosa and theca cells), and germ cells.
1. Surface epithelial inclusion cysts. Usually multiple and found in superfi
Infertility = one year of unprotected intercourse without conception.
Fecundity = ability to achieve a live birth pregnancy within one menstrual cycle.
Although a population increase in infertility is often cited, this is pro
Menstrual Cycle and Its Abnormalities
Review of the menstrual cycle has been omitted
Understand the follicular and luteal phases; the role of GnRH, LH, and FSH;
the estradiol feedback loops; the endometrial response
Female Steroid Hormones
Four general classes of hormones: Glycoproteins (LH/FSH), Polypeptides (insulin, GH, ADH),
Steroids (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone), Amines (epinephrine, T3/T4).
All steroids come from pregnenolone, which is made i
Perimenopause = interval between onset of menopausal symptoms to 1 year after final menstruation.
Menopause = permanent cessation of menstruation due to loss of ovarian activity.
Menopause results from loss of ovarian follicles.