Adrenal Gland Part I
1. Which endocrine organ/tissue acts like the postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic
a. Thyroid gland
c. Adrenal cortex
d. Adrenal medulla
e. Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
2. Which of the following
The Physiology of
Thyroid hormone (TH)
*key focus: interaction of systems.
Actions of the THs
Production of the THs.
Regulating TH homeostasis in blood.
Activation of THs by target cells.
Mechanism of Action of THs at target
The Onset of Reproductive
Mechanisms involved in Puberty
reproductive system is ready to go before born, but something turns it off until puberty.
measured T in children, cord blood.
boys - T lvls at time of birth can be
just as high as in adulth
Veterinary Clinical Case 1
Dr. Pavneesh Madan
DVM; MVSc (Hisar, India); PhD (UBC); PDF (UWO)
Associate Professor, Biomedical Sciences
Ontario Veterinary College
College of Veterinarians of Ontar
Importance of the Topic
Reproduction and Development Affect
almost all aspects of Subsequent Life
Reproductive Dysfunction affects many
people at some time in their lives
Reproductive hormones are amongst the
most widely use
Neil J. MacLusky
Office Hours 9-11am, Thursday
OVC 2633 (Jan 15 onwards)
Toto, I've a feeling we're not in Kansas any more
This may well be a little different from
what you are
make list of hormone families and differences in pituitary lobes
Organization of the Endocrine System
1. Which of these is not secreted from the anterior hypophysis?
a. Thyroid-stimulating hormone
b. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Thyroid Gland Axis
1. Elevated levels of which of the following hormones cause increased metabolic rate,
sensitivity to heat, weight loss, and protruding eyes?
a. Parathyroid hormone
2. The normal h
General Introduction to Endocrine Physiology
1. GnRH, oxytocin, ADH, and TRH signal via
c. cytosolic receptor
d. tyrosine kinase pathway
e. JAK/STAT pathway
2. Insulin and IGF-1 signal via
c. cytosolic receptor
1. Some animals can be born with extra parathyroid glands. This is most likely to result in
a. high levels of calcium in the urine
b. decreased intestinal uptake of calcium
d. increased rates of bone resorption and dec
1. GH promotes _.
a. cell division
b. protein synthesis
c. bone growth
e. all of the above
2. Which of the following conditions is associated with hyposecretion of GH in growing, or
prepubertal, animals and human beings?
Non-Reproductive effects of the
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Effects of Gonadal Steroids on parts of
the body that are not directly involved in
Use of steroid analogs and inhibitors to
achieve control of disease
What are Incretins?
Gut-derived factors that increase
glucose-stimulated insulin secretion
Why are Incretins important?
Increasing health problems associated
with diabetes require new treatments.
Type 2 diabetes in particular
Disorders of the Endocrine
Its Not Just ADHD
March 10, 2017
The thyroid hormones, T4 and T3, are very important regulators of growth and
development. They often work in collaboration with other hormones. For instance, T3 enhance
Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes = Hyperglycemia, which is defined as:
-fasting plasma glucose above 126 mg/dl
-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) above 200 mg/dl
Pre-Diabetes is defined as:
-impaired fasting glucose (IFG) of 100-125 mg/dl
The anterior pituitary produces GH, TSH, ACTH, Prolactin, and FSH/LH.
The posterior pituitary stores and releases ADH and oxytocin, both produced in the hypothalamus.
Reducing GH secretion
GH production is stimulated by GHRH and inh
Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance
Unregulated glucose uptake (glucose entry in proportion to blood concentration) occurs in the
brain, pancreas, and liver. Stimulation of glucose-sensing neurons suppresses appetite.
Glucose entry in the liver causes g
Diabetes Pharmacology Oral Agents and Insulin
CHO absorption inhibitors
to dietary CHO
The anterior lobe of the pituitary is composed of nests of heterogeneous epithelial cells arranged
into lobules by a reticulin network. The posterior lobe is composed of nerve fibers.
The main type of pituitary tumor is a
Normal effects of Glucocorticoids
Cortisol has a circadian rhythm, and peaks in the early morning hours during waking.
Cortisol and aldosterone are both secreted in response to ACTH from the pituitary.
Cortisone (inactive) is conve
Children grow fastest during infancy. Pubertal growth spurts occur in mid-puberty for girls, and
in late-puberty for boys.
Expected final height is called the mid-parental height (MPH). When calculating the MPH,
add 5 inches for boys,
This is a negative feedback system. TRH produced in the paraventricular nuclei of the
hypothalamus stimulates release of TSH from the pituitary.
TSH stimulates thyrocytes to pump in iodine. Then