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CHAPTER
N AT U R A L C O N V E C T I O N
n Chapters 7 and 8, we considered heat transfer by forced convection,
where a fluid was forced to move over a surface or in a tube by external
means such as a pump or a

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CHAPTER
INTERNAL FORCED
CONVECTION
iquid or gas flow through pipes or ducts is commonly used in heating and
cooling applications. The fluid in such applications is forced to flow by a
fan or pump through a tube

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CHAPTER
EXTERNAL FORCED
CONVECTION
n Chapter 6 we considered the general and theoretical aspects of forced
convection, with emphasis on differential formulation and analytical solutions. In this chapter we cons

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CHAPTER
F U N D A M E N TA L S O F
CONVECTION
o far, we have considered conduction, which is the mechanism of heat
transfer through a solid or a quiescent fluid. We now consider convection, which is the mechani

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CHAPTER
NUMERICAL METHODS
I N H E AT C O N D U C T I O N
o far we have mostly considered relatively simple heat conduction problems involving simple geometries with simple boundary conditions because only such

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CHAPTER
T R A N S I E N T H E AT
CONDUCTION
he temperature of a body, in general, varies with time as well
as position. In rectangular coordinates, this variation is expressed as
T(x, y, z, t), where (x, y, z)

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CHAPTER
S T E A D Y H E AT C O N D U C T I O N
n heat transfer analysis, we are often interested in the rate of heat transfer
through a medium under steady conditions and surface temperatures. Such
problems can

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CHAPTER
H E AT C O N D U C T I O N
E Q U AT I O N
eat transfer has direction as well as magnitude. The rate of heat conduction in a specified direction is proportional to the temperature gradient, which is the c

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CHAPTER
B A S I C S O F H E AT T R A N S F E R
he science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as
a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another, and
makes no reference to

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CHAPTER
COOLING OF ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT
lectronic equipment has made its way into practically every aspect of
modern life, from toys and appliances to high-power computers. The reliability of the electronics of

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CHAPTER
MASS TRANSFER
o this point we have restricted our attention to heat transfer problems
that did not involve any mass transfer. However, many significant heat
transfer problems encountered in practice inv

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CHAPTER
H E AT E X C H A N G E R S
eat exchangers are devices that facilitate the exchange of heat between
two fluids that are at different temperatures while keeping them from
mixing with each other. Heat excha

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CHAPTER
R A D I AT I O N H E AT T R A N S F E R
n Chapter 11, we considered the fundamental aspects of radiation and the
radiation properties of surfaces. We are now in a position to consider
radiation exchange

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CHAPTER
F U N D A M E N TA L S O F
T H E R M A L R A D I AT I O N
o far, we have considered the conduction and convection modes of heat
transfer, which are related to the nature of the materials involved and
the

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CHAPTER
BOILING AND
C O N D E N S AT I O N
e know from thermodynamics that when the temperature of a liquid
at a specified pressure is raised to the saturation temperature Tsat at
that pressure, boiling occurs.

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Page vii
CONTENTS
Preface xviii Nomenclature xxvi
CHAPTER TWO
HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION 61
2-1 Introduction 62
Steady versus Transient Heat Transfer 63 Multidimensional Heat Transfer 64 Heat Generation 66
CHAPTER
1-1
ONE

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Page xviii
PREFACE
OBJECTIVES
H
eat transfer is a basic science that deals with the rate of transfer of thermal energy. This introductory text is intended for use in a first course in heat transfer for undergraduate engi