Problems Set- Stereochemistry
1. Name five capital letters that are chiral, and five capital letters that are achiral.
2. Which of the following compounds are chiral?
NBS keeps Br2 low, so that the Br2 wont attack a double bond. NBs is a source of Br radical
Alpha carbon = carbon attached to halogen
Beta carbon = carbon next to it
Hydride = H with 2 electrons
Penta quardinant TS b/c carbon is bonded to 5 atoms.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the rate of reaction and rate constant.
These values were determined for each trial as listed in Table 1.1 and 1.2 in the results and
calculations section. Furthermore, it was proved that the ioni
o PROBLEM 4-1
Give the IUPAC name for each of the following hydrocarbons.
(a) (CH3)2CHCH2CH2CH(CH3)2 (d) CHaCHZCHCHZCHZCCHzCHa
CH3 CH3 CHZCHa
l l I (e) CH
(b) CH3CH2CHCH2TCH2CHCH2CH3 3
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES
o PROBLEM 1-1
Provide a likely simple electronic structure for each of
the following, assuming them to be completely covalent.
Assume that every atom has a complete octet (except
hydrogen, of course), an
Isomerism: Constitutional Isomers and
Stereoisomers are isomers with the same molecular
formula and same connectivity of atoms but
different arrangement of atoms in space
Chiral: From the Greek, cheir, hand
Strain, cyclic molecules.
strain: any factor that destabilizes a molecule by forcing it to
deviate from its optimum bonding geometry (destabilizes)
steric strain (steric crowding): nonbonded atoms forced
too close together
For alkenes, the mo
Chiral sbustrate in SN1 becomes a carbocation so then it can result in both inversion or
Predict the product = free radical, sn1, sn2
Secondary on pentane is greater than secondary in ring = less ring string.
More electrohpilic carbon in
Net alpha observed value= 60% x (-13.5) +40% (+13.5) = -2.7.
Optical purity is + (since its %) so you take its magnitude.
Of 60% and 40% = 20% is e.e and 80% is racemic and doenst contribute to specific rotation.
O.P = e.e = observed (from student)/ spec
Chapter 9: Alkynes
Alkynes contain triple bond
General formula is CnH2n-2
Two elements of unsaturation for each triple bond
Some reactions resemble the reactions of alkenes, like addition and oxidation
Some reactions specific to alkynes
Chapter 8: Reaction of Alkenes
Reactivity of the Carbon-Carbon Double Bond
The most common reactions of double bond transform the pi bond into a sigma bond
Types of reactions: addition, elimination, substitution
Bonding in Alkenes
Electrons in pi bond a
Chapter 7: Structure and
Synthesis of Alkenes
Alkenes are hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon double bonds
Alkenes are also called olefins, meaning oil-forming gas
The functional group of alkenes is the carbon-carbon double bond, which gives th
used social derogation designed to humiliate women who refused having sex with them (telling
everyone she sucked his dick).
Socially isolation if they refused mens sexual demands. This hindered their ability to do well in the
The importance of chemistry is
mockery if its the other way around. , Older men with white hair on TV is accepted as opposed to a
woman. Double standard exists in jobs. Men hold on to their power more as they age.
Menopause is over a long period of time
First time offenders attend an anger management counselling program
Sometimes the judges would say it would be taken off of your record if you behave well
Victim Impact statement more hopeful, I hope this does work. If it
assault when a weapon is involved
Learned helplessness they shocked the dogs pulse and he couldnt escape. Later, they turned of
the shocks and opened the door, still the dog didnt leave. He had learned helplessness.
Barren wife syndrome woman learn they
Highest energy = Ea determines the rate determining step (i.e slowest step)
High Ea = rate is slower = not enough moleculues reacting
At high temp = more molecules have energy to react = rateincreases
Intermediates= finite life but very short lived
Cause and Effect.
Data gives insight to the bigger picture.
Theories- overarching explanations. Theyre broad and scope. Its an explanation for a class of
phenonmon which previously seemed unrelated. Supported by large body of evidence. Theory
bromination is greater than Ea for forming chlorination.
Small Ea = less selectivity = reactivity ratio is smaller (e.g 1:1.3 as opposed to 1:93).
Base = removes H+, nucleohpile = attacks with its electrons a different atom
C2H4 = pka is 45, C3H4 = 25.
Aspects of Evolution genetics, behaviour, medicine physiology, ecology, agriculture, molecular
Science is a way of inquiring about our natural world. Its not just a body of facts. Science is
constantly changes. Science cant disprove supernatu
Science with natural forces, ID deals with the supernatural.
Supports for ID: fossils, irreducible compelixyt
Structures do change function over the course of evolution and that compelx systems evolve
through cooption of structures that have other functi
enantiomers, S,S and R,R = enantiomers, however, R,S and S,S = diasteromeers. Interchangning 1
changes it from enantiomers to diastemoers)
Achircal = racemic mixture = 50% of each enantiomers b/c they cancel
Conformations = different arraignments (same
When changing between ring flips (change parallel lines to opposite dirctions when drawing
1,3 diaxial interaction is the axial interaction between the methyl to the H on the odd but from the
methyl persepective is 1,3 in just both opposite clockwise int