First Name: _
Student Number: _
FACULTY OF HEALTH
School of Kinesiology and Health Science
Kinesiology AS/SC 3020 3.0
Skilled Performance and Motor Learning
October 22, 2012
- This exam is wor
210 498 517
Laboratory 8 - Perception: The Effect of Stimulus Discriminability on
Reaction Time - Crossman's Confusion Function
Index of diffficulty
Questions for Topic 18 Reading
1. What is the psychological refractory period (PRP)?
This delay in responding to the second of two closely spaced stimuli is termed the psychological refractory
period (PRP), an important phenomenon in understanding human p
Questions for Topic 7 Reading
1. Why would an expert/skilled performer have difficulty teaching a beginner an activity?
This difficulty is due in part to the expert's failure to understand how the beginner approaches
performing the skill each time he or s
Reading 7: The Stages of Learning
1. Why would a skilled performer have difficulty teaching a beginner an activity?
Failure to understand how the beginner approaches performing the skill each time they
try it (Difficulty behaving like a beginner)
Reading 6: The Degrees of Freedom Problem
1. Explain the concept of Degrees of Freedom
The degrees of freedom of a system reflect the number of independent elements (or
components) of the system and the number of ways each element is free to actfor
Perception: The effect pf stimulus discrimination on reaction time Crossmans Confusion
1. Hand in the figure that you have constructed.
Discrimination Reaction Time (msecs)
f(x) = 2.78x + 456.62
R = 0.78
Decision: The Effect of Number of Choices on Reaction Time
1. Hand in your fully labeled regression figure.
R = 0
Mean Choice Reaction Time (msecs)
Log2 (# of choices)
Figure 1.1 - L
1. Hand in the fully labeled figure and the completed table.
Figure 1.1 Bar graph comparing personal E scores obtained from a computer
simulation with both dominant and
Questions for Topic 3 Reading
1. Putting a key into a key hole is an example of what type of skill?
Manual aiming skill
(b) What does this skill require from the performer?
Other motor skills require limb movement accuracy but not speed. For example, many
Questions for Topic 4 Reading
1. Define reaction time (RT).
The common measure indicating how long it takes a person to prepare and initiate a
movement is reaction time (RT).
2. True/False: A measure of RT would involve the time the stimulus is presented
Questions for Topic 8 Reading
1. Deciding what to do is one of the most important features of skilled performance. How
should these decisions be done?
Without a doubt, one of the most important features of skilled performance is deciding what
to do (and w
Questions for Topic 19 Reading
1. What is the fundamental way performers cope with long reaction delays?
2. True/False: The movement organization system is required to react after the fact to
The movement organization sys
Questions for Topic 17 Reading
1. What is action preparation?
Preparation does not refer to the long-term preparation that occurs during the days
prior to an event, but to the specific preparation the motor control system makes just
prior to initiating mo
Questions for Topic 2 Reading
1. (a) Define Reaction Time (RT).
RT is defined as the time interval between the presentation of a signal (such as a light or
an auditory tone) and the initiation of movement.
(b) Give an example of when RT can be used.
Questions for Topic 9 Reading
1. What is memory?
An important concept in thinking about skills is memory usually seen simply as the storage of the
results of the various information-processing activities discussed so far.
2. (a) What is the most periphe
Questions for Topic 12 Reading
1. How do expert performers analyze visual display differently than novice performers?
Such studies have identified significant perceptual differences between expert and novice
performers. These differences have specifically
Questions for Topic 11 Reading
1. The most direct technique to study the role of vision in motor control involves the
recording of eye movements as a person performs a skill
2. What is the difference between a skilled tennis player and a novice tennis pla
Questions for Topic 13, 14, & 15 Readings
1. Explain why you would hesitate to wave at someone who appears to be someone you
recognize from your old school?
You may hesitate due to the detection processes. A common dimension of these situations is that
Questions for Topic 16 Reading
1. (a) According to traditional theories of visual perception, what does our ability to alter
position of our body at a given point in space and to intercept a moving object depend on?
According to traditional, or indirect,
Questions for Topic 6 Reading
1. Explain the concept of degrees of freedom (DOF).
The degrees of freedom of any system reflect the number of independent elements or
components of the system. Each element is "free" to vary in specific ways, as in the case
Part 1: Measuring and Analyzing Data
2. Compare your mean and median scores for reaction time. Was one a better
representative of central tendency than the other? Explain your answer.
The mean value for the reaction time is 251 msecs, whereas
Mean Time (seconds)
Figure 1.1 Bar graph comparing the mean time (seconds) between the controlled baseline
measurement and the mental treatment group of an undergraduate Kinesiology class.
The means for each of the three groups were calculated and are presented in Figure 1. A separate groups
analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the data and found to be significant, (F=6.64, df=2/18,
p=0.0069). A Tukey-Kramer post hoc test re
Topic 3 & 4: Somatosensory System (lowest to highest
level of CNS Hierarchy)
- Consist of:
o Intrafusal fibers (extrafusal are regular muscles) (nuclear
o Sensory neuron endings (group Ia and II wraps around
Topic 2: Neurons
Depolarize: bring closer to threshold, produce
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
Hyperpolarize: father from threshold,
Neuron is the lowest level in the hierarchy
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
Topic 1: Physiology of Motor Control
Brain signals may be processed in two ways:
o Hierarchically: within ascending lvls of the CNS (ie. Brain
interprets sensory information)
Higher lvl might select specific response, and lower lvl
would then carry o
Chapter 3- Physiology of Motor Control
A signal may be processed hierarchically, ascending levels of the CNS or through
parallel distributed processing, simultaneously among different brain structures
In hierarchical processing, higher levels might select
Questions for Topic 13, 14, & 15 Readings
1. Explain why you would hesitate to wave at someone who appears to be someone
you recognize from your old school?
2. The signal detection theory evolved out of developments of _
early in this century.
3. (a) What
KINE 3020 - Lab 2
2. USING THE CLASS DATA, perform a t-test between no-googles and silver google
conditions. Was there a significant change in MT?
A related paired t-test was performed on the class data. There was a significant difference
Reading 7 - Stages of Learning
Have you ever noticed that people who are skilled at performing an activity often have difficulty
teaching that activity to a beginner? This difficulty is due in part to the expert's failure to
understand how the beginner ap
Reading 2 - Measurement of Motor Performance
This chapter describes different types of scientific measurement techniques that are used to test
the validity of various models of motor control.
These measurements range from noninvasive psychological measure
Reading 3- Speed Accuracy and Fitts Law
Many motor skills require a person to perform with both speed and accuracy. For
example: pitching a fastball for a strike
Other motor skills require limb movement accuracy but not speed. For ex
Reading 1- Skill Definitions
Skill consists in the ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty and
minimum outlay of energy, or of time and energy.
There are several important features of this definition to consider. First, performing sk