Study Questions for Fulcher's "What is Capitalism?"
1) What is the overall theme of this article and what is the definition of capitalism?
This article brings to focus the change that the word "capita
HOMEWORK 3A
Southern Film Company (SFC) is preparing to make a bid for the rights to produce a
cartoon version of the upcoming James Bond movie Spectre. SGC is trying to decide
whether to place a high
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Theorem 4.1 (Goldreich and Krawczyk [16]). There exists an auxiliaryinput zero knowledge proof whose 2-fold parallel composition is not auxiliaryinput zero knowledge (or e
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Recently, Pass, Tseng and Wikstrom in [21] prove that only languages in BPP
have public-coin black-box concurrent zero-knowledge proofs or arguments. As
the resul
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c = 0, then P uses the ZKPOK to demonstrate that he knows (i, ri ) consistent
with the transcript t. If c = 0, V demonstrates knowledge of (j, rj ) using the
same ZKPOK. I
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Overview of the Goldreich-Krawczyk Construction [16]. In the proof of Theorem 3.1, the key to constructing a zero-knowledge protocol that breaks under
sequential compositi
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R. Ostrovsky, O. Pandey, and I. Visconti
Introduction
In this paper, we consider Zero-Knowledge argument systems that are nonmalleable and secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks. In
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The basic idea behind the simulation is similar to [PV08]: We wish to define
little time appropriately, so that some slot of every session is
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The prover P is adopted as described next. It maintains a list L, which is
initially empty, and sets u := 0. On random input , it performs the following
st
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Completeness. For every x, y such that RL (x, y) = 1, P (x, y) makes V accept
with probability 1.
Soundness, Zero Knowledge, and Non-malleability. For ever
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Eciency
The Actual Cost. It is easy to see that the additional overhead incurred by the
new prover and verifier, is dominated by three steps (overhead fr
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Note that H1 simulates honest verifiers V1 , . . . , VmR on right, and runs real
provers P1 , . . . , PmL on left of M (x, z) in executing all the threads.
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For the purposes of this paper, we consider two dierent definitions of zero
knowledge. The first, which has primarily been of interest for historical reasons,
is the one o
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Statistical Simulation with respect to lucky Provers. In general, mp is only
computational zk, since the prover commits to 0 while the simulator commits
to
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2. V sends an unlikely message m: Let pm be the probability that V
sends m conditioned on transi1 being the transcript at the end of i 1
rounds. We say that m is
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we will show how to simulate the joint view of M and V1 , . . . , VmR , while simultaneously extracting a witness for each x
whenever V s view is acceptin
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Completeness: There is a negligible function (), such that for every n,
x L cfw_0, 1n,
!
"
Pr P O , V O (x) = 1 1 (n)
where the probability is taken over all the
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that the order of the co-domain (image of (), denoted by Im () cannot be
computed with non-negligible probability. More precisely, using the formalization
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1
P with probability p(n)
. Recall that, P, V is a fully black-box zero-knowledge
based on one-way permutations, there exists a PPT machine B , that with or
acle
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In Section 3, we discuss the complexity of BPPSam . We observe that the
class SZK, of languages having statistical zero-knowledge proofs, is contained in
BPPSam .
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25. Pass, R.: On deniability in the common reference string and random oracle model.
In: Boneh, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 2003. LNCS, vol. 2729, pp. 316337. Springer
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Finally, a protocol designer can deduce from Theorem 6 how an alternative for the -protocol must not look like. Namely, it must either not be
a generic -p
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15. De Santis, A., Di Crescenzo, G., Ostrovsky, R., Persiano, G., Sahai, A.: Robust noninteractive zero knowledge. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS,
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indicating that there are inherent eciency limitations for -protocols. On the
other hand, the cases that are not covered by our results also seem to be val
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Simulator Overview
At a very high-level our simulator follows that of Feige and Shamir [FS90].
The simulator will attempt to rewind one o
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ecient prover, under the assumption that the discrete logarithm is hard, or
more generally under the assumptions that UP BPP and one-way functions
exist. We are interested
BUSINESS ANALYTICS II
Session 9
1
SESSION 9 Objectives
Chapter 16 pages 568-569 (except Regression Forecasting
with Causal Variables):
Determine how sensitive a decision is to changes in
probabilities
PAYOFF TABLE
NFC Bid 6 Million
NFC Bid 10 Million
SFC Low Bid 7 Milli
SFC High Bid 16 Mil
15.8
6.8
0
6.8
PROBABILITY
0.6
0.4
CHANGE THIS ONE
RESULTS
EV of Decision
Decision
9.48
SFC Low Bid 7 Million