Grignard reaction is an organometallic reaction where magnesium halides, the Grignard
reagents, is added to an aldehyde or a ketone, resulting in the formation of secondary or tertiary
alcohol, respectively. The
Lab 7: Introduction to
Table 1: Aldehyde and Ketone tests and preparation of Derivative
- bright orange precipitate
- less precipitate than benzaldehyde
- yellow/orange l
Lab 3: Resolution of
() - phenylethylamine
Table 1: Volume of reagents used in this experiment.
Total Volume (mL)
2M Aqueous NaOH
Table 2: Compounds used in this experiment.
() - phenylethylam
Overview detection methods and detection
Optical detection in CE
The detection by UV/VIS absorption is
governed by Beers law
When light with initial intensity I0 passes
through a detector cell of length LD which
contains the an
Movement of a small particle under the
influence of an electric field
To simplify the problem we look at the movement relative
to the surrounding medium.
We only look at the final velocity, ignoring the process of
acceleration (in contrast to studying a
What is two (or multi) dimensional
chromatography and why is it useful?
It is the coupling of two chromatographic
techniques (in a wider sense it also may
include CE) in a way that after being
separated on the first column (first
dimension) partly separat
(reminder the ionic strength I is defined as:
Here a compound, which is distributed between buffer and surface
according to its distribution coefficient, is added to the buffer.
Consequences and us
Chromatography is based on distribution between
two phases, traditionally the stationary and the
The mobile phase can be a gas, a liquid or a
Stationary phase usually is a liquid or solid.
Definition of peak width
There are numerous ways to express the
width of a chromatographic or
electrophoretic peak. At this point we base
our consideration on a symmetric peak with
the shape of a Gaussian probability
distribution (the ideal peak).
(high selectivity not always positive)
(high sensitivity often desirable but not always needed)
(typical minimum 2-3 orders of magnitude, more generally better)
(Size) exclusion chromatography,
Separation of molecules or small particles
based directly on size
Principle: Exclusion of large molecules
from pores with small diameter
It is considered a chromatographic method
since separation is based on distrib
Resolution R2,1 for two compounds 1 and 2
R2,1 = (2tr 1tr)/(2*2t + 2*1t)= (2tr 1tr)/(4*t)
Peak capacity and separation
The plate number required (Nreq) to obtain a
resolution of one depends on the capacity
(retention) factor k and the selectiv
Lab 4: Kinetics of
1. Determine the effect of varying [OH- ] on the rate of the reaction.
Table 1: Varying effect of [OH-] on the reaction rate.
Experiment [t-BuCl] (M) [OH- ]
Rate constant k