PSYC 2021 - Exam 1 Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
Statistics and Common Sense
Common sense can outperform statistics in several ways such as recognizing patterns
(handwriting, human language, etc.) than computer programs based on statistics.
Two Independent Samples t-Test
E
One Sample t-Test Review
E
Two Independent Samples
E
Two-Sample Standard Error
E
Hypothesis Test With Two Independent
Samples
One Sample t-Test
To test hypotheses when 2 is unknown use t-test
t=
M-
sM
Determine critical v
Two-Sample Related t-Test
Repeated-Measures Design
Difference Scores
t-Statistic for Related Samples
Hypothesis Test With Two Related
Samples
Related vs. Independent Samples
Repeated-Measures Design
Does manipulating the input to our two eyes affect
our p
Nonparametric Tests
Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests
Mann-Whitney U-Test
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test
Kruskal-Wallis Test
Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests
Parametric Tests
Test hypotheses about population parameters
(e.g., or 1 - 2)
Make assumptions abo
Two-Factor ANOVA
Underlying Logic
Notation and Formulas
Hypothesis Test Example
Interpreting Results
Underlying Logic
Temperature Factor B
70
80
90
Humidity Low M = 85 M = 80 M = 75 M = 80
Factor A High M = 75 M = 70 M = 65 M = 70
M = 80
M = 75
M = 70
Mai
Correlation and Regression
What is Correlation?
The Pearson Correlation
Other Measures of Correlation
Regression
What is Correlation?
A technique used to describe the relationship
between two variables (X and Y)
1. variables are observed and measur
STAPLE HERE
(3 marks)
Name:
Personality- Essay assignment 1
Name: Aisha Ali
Student ID:
Student number: 211015971
Part 1Assignment 3
Statistical Methods I and II: Psychology 2020 6.0 H
Due: Beginning of class on February 12, 2014
(Make sure to show all yo
Name:
STAPLE HERE
(3 marks)
Student #:
Assignment 4
Statistical Methods I and II - Psych 2020 6.0 H
Due at the final exam on April 2, 2014
(Make sure to show all your work, including your formulas, for all calculations)
Total marks: 45
1. You are interest
Z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions
A Z-score specifies the precise location of each X value within a distribution. The sign of the zscore (+ or -) signifies whether the score is above the mean (positive) or below the mean
(negativ
1
PSYC 2021 - Exam 3 Notes
Chapter 7: Introduction to Inferential Statistics
Standard
error
of
the
mean:
=
/
N.
The
smaller
the
, the more normal the distribution.
Best
estimate
of
2 =
2 +
2 = (SS / N) + (SS / N [N 1]) = SS / (N 1)
Z sc
Chapter 17: Introduction to Regression
Student: _
1.
In the general linear equation, Y = bX + a, what is the value of a called?
A. the slope
B. the Y-intercept
C. the X-intercept
D. the beta factor
2.
In the linear equation Y = 2X + 1, if X increases by 4
Chi-Square Statistics (2)
Goodness of Fit Test
Test for Independence
Effect Size
2 Goodness of Fit Test
Nonparametric equivalent of the single-sample t-test
Hypothesis test that uses proportions from a sample
to make inferences about proportions in the
po
Estimation
What is Estimation?
Estimation with the t Statistic
How do we Pick the Value of t?
An Example of Applying Estimation
What is Estimation?
An inferential statistic
A technique used to estimate a
population parameter (usually ) from
sample statist
Chapter 18: Chi-Square Tests
Student: _
1.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a nonparametric test?
A. A numerical score is required for each individual.
B. The hypotheses concern population means and variances.
C. The test requires assumptions
Repeated-Measures ANOVA
Post Hoc Tests for Independent-Measures
Underlying Logic
Notation and Formulas
Hypothesis Test Example
Post Hoc Tests for Repeated-Measures
What are Post Hoc Tests?
Additional hypotheses tests done after
obtaining a significant F f
Independent-Measures ANOVA
What is ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)?
Logic Behind ANOVA
Notation and Formulas
Example of Hypothesis Test using ANOVA
What is ANOVA?
An inferential statistic
A hypothesis testing technique used to
test for differences between 2
Chapter 16: Correlation
Student: _
1.
A positive value for a correlation indicates _.
A. increases in X tend to be accompanied by increases in Y
B. increases in X tend to be accompanied by decreases in Y
C. a much stronger relationship than if the correla
Chapter 4: Variability
1.
a. SS is the sum of squared deviation scores.
b. Variance is the mean squared deviation.
c. Standard deviation is the square root of the variance. It provides a measure of the
standard distance from the mean.
2. SS cannot be less
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
1. a. The population is the entire set of adolescent boys who are taking medication for
depression.
b. The sample is the group of 30 boys who were tested in the study.
2. A parameter is a characteristic, usually a num
Chi-Square Statistics (2)
Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests
Goodness of Fit Test
Test for Independence
Effect Size
Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests
Parametric Tests
Test hypotheses about population parameters
(e.g., or 1 - 2)
Make assumptions about the
Correlation and Regression
What is Correlation?
The Pearson Correlation
Other Measures of Correlation
Regression
What is Correlation?
A technique used to describe the relationship
between two variables (X and Y)
1. variables are observed and measured
but
PSYC 2021 - Exam 2 Notes
Chapter 6: Probability
Probability
Probability quantifies the possibility that something is true through calculations or tables.
The probability (p) of a target event = number of target events / number of total events.
The total n
Chapter 2 Frequency Distribution
Monday, January 14, 2013
2.1 Introduction to frequency Distribution
Results from a study usually consist of pages of information of data ex.
Measurements, scores etc. You as a researcher want organize the information so
th
Statistical Methods
Saturday, January 12, 2013
Chapter 1- Introduction and Descriptive Statistics
1.1 Statistics, Science, and Observation
What is Statistics- Consists of facts and figures such as average income, crime rate, birth rate and
etc. They are t