Porifera - Sponges
Porifera [Sponges] Phylum of simple multicellular animals, with a simple body enclosing a
single central cavity (in simple sponges) or penetrated by numerous interconnected
cavities. The body wall consists of an outer layer of epitheliu
BIOL 2030 Quiz #1 Name:
TueSday 6330 PM, Section 12 Student Number: _
1. ln protists, what structures carry out digestion?
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2. What type of locomotion is exhibited by protozoa from Subphylum Mastigophora?
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Chapter 4: Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals
Order in Diversity
- Animal diversity is not random; has definite order
- Organize animal diversity in hierarchy of groups according to their evolutionary
o Ordered pattern in sharing of homologou
Polymorphic colonial forms
There are many morphological forms because each is functionally different
o Gastrozooid are responsible for capture and digestion of prey
o Dactylozooid dont have tentacles hence are naked
The layer of the mesoderm that lines the body wall
and forms the septa is called the
The polychaetes differ from other annelids by
having a well-developed head that often bears the
The amphibians and the _ represent the
two major branches of the tetrapod lineage.
The first terrestrial tetrapods were probably the
Cilia and flagella are similar in _
their internal structure.
the number located on a cell.
how they move water
The sliding microtubule hypothesis explains
The first amniotes evolved in the period.
An example of an extant anapsid is a
An example of an extant diapsid is a(n)
The cuticle of arthropods is composed of a thicker inner
_ layer, and a thinner outer layer. the
_. The macromolecule that characterizes the
exocuticle, endocuticle, chitin.
procuticle, epicuticle, chitin.
endocuticle, procuticle, kera
The endoskeleton of the echinoderms is composed
The ambulacral groove is found between the
rows of tube feet.
layers of pedicellariae.
The primary function of the notochord is
Cladistics shows that the chordates contain
paraphyletic groupings such as
reptiles and fish.
amphibians and birds.
amphibians and reptiles.
The structure of molluscs that forms the shell and
houses the gills is the
The characters of no shell, integumental scales, a
reduced head and being dioecious describes which of
Lab Exam Format
Bell-ringer with 25 stations
Side bench material
Questions will include (but not limited to):
ID specimen, orientation, life stage (and host, if
There are approximately _ species of birds
Which of the following is not a characteristic of all
species of birds?
Why might you surmise that few birds eat
Which of the following statements about hair is true?
It is homologous to feathers.
It is a dermal structure.
It is found in all mammals.
It is possessed by all endotherms.
The mammalian skull may be characterized as _.
Lecture 17 Fishes
Subphylum Vertebrata Fishes I
Ancestral vertebrate Haikouella lanceolata
Not fully to have a status of vertebrates yet
Largest vertebrate group
Early vertebrates substantially larger than protochordates
About 93,000 species of molluscs
7 or 8 classes in the phylum
Polyplacophora have 7 to 8 overlapping shells instead of 1 shell (defining
Gastropoda has coiled shell
Bivalvia have 2 shells
Subphylum Vertebrata Fishes I
Ciliary pumps in pharyngeal region
Collagen replaced by cartilage cartilage is more solid and has more
More advantageous for animal to have muscular pump rather than just cilia
Prelab 7 Echinodermata
1. The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, for
locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration. The water vascular
system of the sea stars open up at the madreporite, a perforated opening in t
Lab 2: Phylum Porifera and Phylum Cnidaria
Adults are sessile
Have radial symmetry or are asymmetrical
Skeleton is made of collagen and spicules
No organs or true tissue
Lacks mouth, anus, and digestive system
in front of the mouth
Senses touch & taste;
helps crayfish maintain
Senses touch and taste
Mandible or jaw
Moves food to the mouth
behind the mandibles
Lab 1: Kingdom Protista
All life is assigned to 3 domains Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
There is extensive diversity within Protista (Domain Eukarya)
Protista doesnt include all descendants of the most common ancestor this kingdom is
Subphylum Vertebrata Mammalia
o Ornithodelphia (Monotremes)
Oviparous mammals (not typical of mammals)
o Metatheria (Marsupials)
Viviparous mammals (pouched)
Have an encased egg stage for a short period of time
Dont get nu
Subphylum Vertebrata Aves
Subclass Archaeornithes: ancient birds (fossils)
o Transitional between lizards and birds
Subclass Neornithes: new birds
o All living birds and some extinct birds
o Superorder Paleognathae: flightless
Two subphyla: Pelmatozoa (mostly extinct and more primitive) and
All marine organisms no freshwater or terrestrial
o Have feather stars on arms
o Sea lillies are deep sea organisms
Subphylum Vertebrata Fishes II
Body Form and Function
Most fishes are in Actinopterygii
Morphology and physiology of fish are dominated by environmental
pressures i.e. water
o Major influence is on shape of fishes
Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes
Turbellaria are the only ones that are free living, others are all parasitic
Monogenea are external parasites mainly found on fishes
Cestoda are tapeworms and they lack a digestive tract
Parasitic Strategies - Cestodes
o Immature proglottids are produced just below the scolex in the
o Like all parasites, highly adapted to its environment
o Important feature of a successful parasite is to be able to rep
Subphylum Vertebrata Amphibians
Order Gymnophiona (caecilians)
o Burrow in tropical forests
o Common in South America
o About 150-160 species
o Internal fertilization dont lay eggs like other amphibians
o Have viviparity
Order Urodela (sala
Reptiles were very common in the Mesozoic era
Reptiles are a paraphyletic group: most recent group of reptiles does not
represent all the past groups
Why are reptiles successful?
Amphibians need to lay eggs near water
The Chordates and Vertebrate Beginnings
Phylum Chordata (3 subphyla)
o Urochordata all marine and sessile, filter feeding organism
o Cephalochordata marine, filter-feeding organism, more fish-like,
much smaller subphylum than urochordates
Phylum Arthropoda II
Exoskeleton extends itself to evolve into small structures that act as sensory
This is critical because if the exoskeleton was not extended, it would be a
constricting feature for the organism