Chapter 35- Gastrointestinal Function
The components of the GI tract is thought of as a continuous tube approx. 7m in
length (from mouth to anus)
The general function of the GI tract can be divided into 1.) Movement of nutrients,
2.) Secretion of digest
Chapter 41- Diabetes Mellitus
- Is not a single disease, but as many as 30 different disorders.
- Pathophysiology of pre-diabetes is complex with a relationship of elevated glucose,
and the development of insulin resistance.
- When glucose
Chapter 36- GI Disorders
Approx. 200,000 people miss work daily because of GI-related problems.
GI diseases account for more hospital admissions in the USA than other category of
Manifestations of GI Tract Disorders
- A subjective dis
Chapter 40- Disorders of Endocrine Function
- The endocrine system works in collaboration with the nervous system to regulate
bodily processed, metabolic processes, growth, maturation, fluid balance,
reproduction, and stress.
Endocrine disorders are c
Chapter 23- Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders
Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders: result from decreased expansion of the lungs due
to alteration in parenchyma, pleura, chest wall, or neuromuscular dysfunction.
- Classified as pulmonary or extrapulmonary
Chapter 25- Acid Base Homeostasis and Imbalances
An alteration in pH is a change in H+ ion concentration in the blood.
DEATH is likely to occur if pH is <6.9 or >7.8
ABGs are accurate ways of measuring the acid-base status of body
- Carbonic acid is kno
Chapter 26- RENAL FUNCTION
The kidneys filter more than 7L of fluid/ hour, but reabsorb 99% of that.
Perform 2 important endocrine functions: production of EPO and activation
of vitamin D.
- Each kidney contains approx. 1,000,000 nephrons.
- Serious r
Chapter 24- Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis and Imbalances
- Pertains to water within the body cavity & particles dissolved within it.
- Serves as a lubricant and solvent for metabolism
- Transports oxygen, nutrients, chemical messengers & wa
Chapter 22- Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders
Obstructive lung diseases- is manifested primarily by an increased resistance to
Can be classified into
- Obstructions in the wall of the lumen (asthma, bronchitis)
- Obstruction resulting from increa
Chapter 21- Respiratory Function and Alterations in Gas Exchange
The primary function of the lungs is gas exchange.
- For proper gas exchange, the processes of ventilation, perfusion and diffusion must
be present. Problems with any of these proces
Chapter 16- Alterations in Blood Pressure
The systemic arterial blood pressure provides momentum, and tissue metabolic
Systemic arterial blood pressure is the physiological result of cardiac output, and the
resistance to the ejecti
Chapter 17- Cardiac Function
Normal pressures in the heart
Right atrium= 0-8mmHg
Right ventricle= 12-28/0-8
Pulmonary artery= 15-28/4-12
Left atrium= 4-12
Left ventricle= 100-120/4-12
Layers of the heart
Endocardium- inner laye
Chapter 7- Neoplasia
Neoplasia means new growth
- Implies an abnormality of cellular growth.
- Used interchangeably with tumor.
- Is seen when the rate of cellular proliferation does not match the rate of
The term cancer is only applied
Chapter 15- Alterations in Blood Flow
- Primary function is to transport O2 and CO2, removal of metabolic wastes, and
transportation of nutrients throughout the body
- Inadequate circulation in either of these systems may interfere with
Chapter 6- Genetic and Developmental Disorders
It is estimated that most people have around 5-8 defective recessive genes.
Congenital disorders= present at birth (caused by genes, environment/ both)
Congenital malformations= structural defects
Disorders of Skin Integrity and Function
Skin is the 1st line of defense against microbes that may invade the body's internal env.
Skin = most common site of infx
Skin is the largest organ
E.g. Pimple on skin =