1. Rocks undergo strain and thus deform, there is stretching if rock becomes longer, shortening,
and shear if sides move in opposite direction relative to eachother.
2. Brittle deformation (top 10-15 km of crust) and plastic (ductile) deformati
1. Causes of earthquake are sudden. Hypocenter= first point of slip of rock, epicenter= point of
surface directly above hypocenter.
2. Displacement= distance between marker on two ends of fault. Fault scarp= fault line at
surface that produces
1. Volcanoes erupt in three forms: lava flows, pyroclastic debris and gas.
2. Lava flows= characteristics of lava are primarily determined by viscosity, viscosity depends
on chem. composition, temp., gas content, and crystal content.
1. Metamorphism is specifically when new mineral froms that was not in protolith.
2. Metamorphosism includes metam. texture defined by arrangement of mineral grains,
metam. foliation characterized by parallel alignment of platy minerals (mica)
1. Sedimentary rock is formed at or near surface through cementing of clasts (clastic), shell
fragments (biochemical sedim.), by accumulation and subsequent alteration of organic
material (organic sedim.), or precipitation of minerals directly f
1. extrusive is lava that freezes into rock above ground. Intrusive is magma frozen underground as
rock wall that pushes its way into surrounding lithosphere.
2. Heat from earth formed by prehistoric collisions, friction of pressurized iron melt
1. Mineral= naturally occurring solid formed b geologic processes, that has crystalline structure and
a definable chemical composition. Almost all minerals are inorganic.
2. Crystal= single continuos piece of crystalline solid typically bound by
1. hess proposed seafloor spreading in 1960 developed further in 1968.
2. Lithosphere hard upper level lies on asthenosphere which flows when acted upon. Lithosphere is
1280 celsius and below.
3. Continental lithosphere 150-200km oceanic <10 km