Chapter 8 Language and Thought
Properties & Structure
Language: Symbolic, Semantic, Generative and Structured Hierarchy
Phonemes: Smallest speech units that can be distinguished
Morphemes: Smallest unit of meaning in a language
Syntax: System of
Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing
KEY CONCEPTS IN TESTING:
Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in administering and score tests.
Norms indicate whether a score on a test ranks in relation to other scores.
Chapter 16 Social Behaviour
Judgements of others can be distorted by their physical appearance, as we tend to ascribe
desirable personality characteristics and competence on those who are good looking.
Perceptions of competence based on
Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment
THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY:
A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way across a variety of
According to the five-factor model, most aspects of personality a
Chapter 7 Human Memory
Attention: Entails a selective focus on certain input, enhances encoding.
Levels-of-processing theory: Proposes that deeper levels of processing result in more durable memory.
Structural, Phonemic and Semantic encoding: Rep
Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
The medical model:
The medical model, which assumes that is useful to view abnormal behaviors as a disease, led to
more humane treatment for people who exhibited abnormal behavior.
However, the medica
Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness
The Nature of Consciousness:
Consciousness involves varied levels of awareness.
Mental processes continue during sleep, as some stimuli can penetrate awareness.
Research suggests that decisions made whe
Chapter 13 Stress, Coping and Health
Peoples appraisals of events determine what they find stressful
Major Types of Stress
Occurs when the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
In an approach-approach conflict, a choice mu
Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Freud believed that neuroses are caused by unconscious conflicts regarding sex and aggression
left over from childhood.
In psychoanalysis, dream analysis and free associatio
Chapter 6 Learning (cont.)
Intermittent reinforcement schedules
Reinforcement is most effective when it is immediate; delayed reinforcement
undermines response acquisition.
Continuous reinforcement occurs when every instance of a desi
1. Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all
persuasions affirmed the importance of
B. choice blindness.
C. selective attention.
2. Consciousness is
A. the abili
1. Motivation is defined by psychologists as
A. an impulse to accomplish something of significance.
B. rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people.
C. a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
D. the cause o
1. The first stage of the sexual response cycle is
A. a refractory period.
B. an excitement stage.
C. a plateau stage.
2. Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that
A. men and women experience an equally long refra
1. Vince, an extraverted university freshman, has just moved into a dormitory. Vince is most likely to
become friends with
A. Alfonse, a junior who is majoring in psychology and lives across the hall.
B. Mohammed, an introverted student who live
1. The treatment of serious psychological disorders with prescribed medications or medical procedures
that directly influence the nervous system is called
A. systematic desensitization.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
C. psychodynamic therapy.
1. Normal visual sensation in the absence of complete visual perception is best illustrated by
B. the difference threshold.
C. subliminal stimulation.
D. sensory interaction.
2. The process of receiving and representi
1. Psychologists use _ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those
A. genetic estimates
B. reliability coefficients
C. intelligence tests
D. the g factor
2. The nineteenth-century English scientist Si
1. An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally
learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by
A. Pavlov's experiments.
B. Watson's behaviori
1. Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
A. bipolar disorder.
B. an anxiety disorder.
C. anorexia nervosa.
D. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
2. Rishi, a college student, complains that he fe
1. Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as
A. group polarization.
B. the chameleon effect.
C. social facilitation.
D. social loafing.
2. Hearing someone reading a neutral text in a happy-sounding voice is most likely to tri
1. Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
D. mental set
2. Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of he
1. An inability to retrieve information learned in the past is called
A. shallow processing.
B. anterograde amnesia.
C. proactive interference.
D. retrograde amnesia.
2. After having brain surgery to stop severe seizures, Henry Molaiso
1. The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on
A. effortful processing.
C. visual encoding.
2. Which measure of memory retention assesses the ability to draw information out of storage and
1. Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments
experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their
A. Y chromosomes.
D. sex hormones.
2. Premature infants who
1. Ten distinct and basic emotions were identified by
A. William James.
B. Charles Darwin.
C. Stanley Schachter.
D. Caroll Izard.
2. People tend to describe their experienced emotions along the two dimensions of
A. physical and social.
1. Adolescence extends from
A. the beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations.
B. 12 to 15 years of age.
C. the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.
D. the beginning to the end of the growth spurt.
1. The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
A. dismiss the value of skepticism.
B. reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested.
C. exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.
D. overestimate the extent to which others
1. Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely
because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)
C. naturalistic observation.
D. operational definiti
1. Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)
2. An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain
is called a(n)
1. Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of
A. specific brain regions.
B. synaptic gaps.
D. the myelin sheath.
2. The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which