1. The nucleus _, which is essential for function and survival of the cell.
A) is the site of protein synthesis
B) contains the genetic code
C) transforms cellular energy
D) initiates aerobic metabolism
2. Although energy is not made in mitochondria, they
1. With the exception of the first two steps, what is required in all steps of the clotting
C) Tissue factor
2. The first step of hemostasis occurs as a:
A) fibrin clot.
B) platelet plug.
C) clot retractio
1. Genetic disorders that involve a single gene trait are characterized by:
A) multifactorial gene mutations.
B) chromosome rearrangements.
C) Mendelian patterns of transmission.
D) abnormal numbers of chromosomes.
2. In addition to having a 50% chance of
1. In the arterial-venous circulatory system, pressure is inversely related to:
2. Turbulent blood flow can be caused by a number of factors, including:
A) increased velocity.
B) short vessel length.
1. Skeletal tissue contains intercellular collagen fibers that provide _ for tendons and
A) elastic recoil
B) shape flexibility
C) tensile strength
D) inorganic calcium
2. Cartilage is a firm but flexible type of connective tissue that is essen
1. Although growth rate is variable among types of bacteria, the growth of bacteria is
A) biofilm communication.
B) availability of nutrients.
C) an intact protein capsid.
D) individual cell motility.
2. Treponema pallidum, the cause of syph
1. During accommodation, pupillary dilation partially compensates for the reduced size of
the retinal image by:
A) thickening the lens.
B) contracting the ciliary muscle.
C) increasing light entering the pupil.
D) narrowing the palpebral opening.
1. The intracranial volume that is most capable of compensating for increasing intracranial
pressure is the:
A) brain cell tissue.
B) intravascular blood.
C) surface sulci fluid.
D) cerebrospinal fluid.
2. A late indicator of increased intracranial pressu
1. Innate immunity, also called natural or native immunity, consists of mechanisms that
respond specifically to:
2. Adaptive immune responses, also called acquired or specific immunity, are compo
1. Pleuritic chest pain associated with respiratory movements is usually described as:
2. A man sustained a puncture injury to his chest that caused a tension pneumothorax to
form. This is a life-t
1. An injured patient develops interstitial edema as a result of decreased:
A) vascular volume.
B) hydrostatic pressure.
C) capillary permeability.
D) colloidal osmotic pressure.
2. The most reliable method for measuring body water or fluid volume increas
1. According to Walter B. Cannon, homeostasis is a stable internal environment achieved
through a system of:
A) interdependent system-wide adaptive responses.
B) variable internal and external conditioning factors.
C) coordinated physiologic processes tha
1. Epithelialization, the first component of the proliferative phase of wound healing, is
delayed in open wounds until after _ has formed.
A) granulation tissue
B) fibrinous meshwork
C) capillary circulation
D) collagenous layers
2. A mutation has occurre
1. Ischemia and other toxic injuries increase the accumulation of intracellular calcium as a
A) release of stored calcium from the mitochondria.
B) improved intracellular volume regulation.
C) decreased influx across the cell membrane.
1. Abnormally high accumulation of bilirubin in the blood causes:
D) biliary cirrhosis.
2. The mechanisms of liver damage in viral hepatitis include:
A) direct cellular injury.
B) fatty liver changes.
1. The characteristic, localized cardinal signs of acute inflammation include:
2. The vascular, hemodynamic stage of acute inflammation is initiated by momentary
vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation tha
1. Manifestations of superficial dermatophytosis of the skin include:
2. Onychomycosis initially causes the toenail to appear _ as the fungus digests the nail
1. Chronic stable angina, associated with inadequate blood flow to meet the metabolic
demands of the myocardium, is caused by:
A) fixed coronary obstruction.
B) increased collateral circulation.
C) intermittent vessel vasospasms.
D) excessive endothelial
1. A distinguishing feature of viral influenza is:
A) direct contact transmission.
B) abrupt-onset, profound malaise.
C) constant pounding headache.
D) profuse watery nasal discharge.
2. A common cause of bacterial pneumonia in both community and hospital
1. A predominant effect of a prolonged excessive growth hormone level is:
A) short stature with obesity.
B) high androgen hormone levels.
C) increased blood glucose levels.
D) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) depletion.
2. The most common cause of hypothy
1. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is directly associated with:
A) testicular cancer.
B) cervical dysplasia.
C) genital herpes lesions.
D) urinary tract infections.
2. The vaginal discharge characteristic of trichomoniasis is described as:
A) thick c
1. When the kidneys have decreased perfusion or increased sympathetic nervous system
stimulation, renal blood flow goes mainly to the medulla in order to decrease _
while maintaining the _ of urine.
A) pressure; adequate output
B) electrolyte loss; acidic
1. Characteristics of a patient that is at high risk for falling and fracturing a hip include:
A) obesity and short stature.
B) excessive sugar intake.
C) hearing impairment.
D) chronic osteoporosis.
2. A pathologic stress fracture occurs in bones subject
1. A characteristic manifestation of polycystic kidney disease is:
A) massive proteinuria.
B) renal colic.
C) alkaline urine.
2. Of the four types of kidney stones, the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate
(struvite) stones is direct
1. The pathophysiology of heart failure involves an interaction between decreased
pumping ability and the _ to maintain cardiac output.
A) aortic hypertrophy
B) compensatory mechanisms
C) electrical conductivity
D) parasympathetic system
2. Cardiac output
1. Smooth muscle relaxation and shunting of blood into the sinusoids is mediated by
_ and results in a penile erection.
C) nitric oxide
D) nicotinic acid
2. Priapism is a condition that causes ischemia as a result of:
1. The most common indicator of acute renal failure is:
2. A patient had excessive blood loss and prolonged hypotension during surgery. His
postoperative urine output is sharply decreased and his blood urea nit
1. More complex patterns of movements, such as throwing a ball or picking up a fork, are
controlled by the _ cortex in the frontal lobe.
B) primary motor
2. Disorders of the pyramidal tracts, such as a stroke, are
1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from destruction of the pancreatic beta cells by two
mechanisms. The mechanism for type 1A diabetes is _ destruction.
2. The metabolic abnormalities that lead to type