A.) The stars change along the Main Sequence in a patern, the bottom of the Sequence starts with
little starts that have really small masses. The color of them start with orange, moving along the
Sequence we have much bigger stars, in which we see our
During the day, we are able to observe many different objects in our sky and basically
many different things around our planet, Earth. On the other hand, at night, we are able to a see
majority of objects that make up the world and subject of Astronomy. W
Ranking Task: Orbital Distance, Mass, and Radius of Planets
The following images show six objects in our solar system. Rank the objects from left to right based on
their average distance from the Sun, from farthest to closest. (Not to scale.)
Searching for Signs of Intelligence (Process of Science)
Currently, astronomers are observing the universe across many different regions of the electromagnetic
spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves. One of the primary issues when considering com
Ranking Task: Exploring the Jovian Planets
The following images show Earth and the four jovian planets of our solar system. Rank these planets from left to right
based on their distance from the Sun, from closest to farthest. (Not to scale.)
Visual Activity: Exploring the Surface Features of Mars
Assuming that features you see on Mars are similar to features found on Earth, what would a casual
inspection of the interactive photo of Mars lead you to suspect about water on Mars?
Sorting Task: Characteristics of Reflecting and Refracting Telescopes
Listed following are distinguishing characteristics and examples of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
Match these to the appropriate category.
Visual Activity: Atmospheric Ab
Ranking Task: Lunar Phases II
The following figures show a top view of Earth, sunlight, and six different positions of the Moon as it
orbits Earth. Note that the distances shown are not drawn to scale. Rank each of the six lunar positions
Discovering Uranus and Neptune (Process of Science)
After the discovery of Uranus, astronomers calculated its orbit and predicted its position in the sky using Kepler's laws of
planetary motion, which had been known since the early 17th century. Ho
Sorting Task: Solstices and Equinoxes
Listed following are observable characteristics of equinoxes and solstices in the continental United States
(which means temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere). Match each characteristic to the
Sorting Task: Comets, Meteors, and Asteroids
Listed following are some distinguishing characteristics of comets, meteors, and asteroids. Match these to
the appropriate category of objects.
Vocabulary in Context: Comets
Match the words in the
What is the Sun made of (by mass)?
70 percent hydrogen, 28 percent helium, 2 percent other elements
What is the solar wind?
It is the name we give to the gas (or plasma) particles flowing outward fro the surface of the Sun into
the solar system.
What is t
Which of the following is not a general characteristic of the four jovian planets in our solar system? They are higher in
average density than are the terrestrial planets.
Which of the following best describes the internal layering of Jupiter, from the ce
Jovian Planet Systems
Why do Jovian planets bulge around the equator, that is, have a "squashed" appearance? Their rapid rotation flings the
mass near the equator outward.
How much energy does Jupiter emit compared with how much it receives from the Sun?
Sorting Task: Temperature Scales
Ranking Task: Gravity and Newtons Laws
answer for part b - c is the same as part a
Key Concept: Understanding Tides
As shown in the animation, Earth has two tidal bulges at all times. Approximately where are these b
In Ptolemy's Earth-c entered model for the solar system (not shown). Venus always stays close to the Sun in the sky and. because it always stays bl
and crescent. The following statements are all true and were all observed by Galileo. Which one prov
Sorting Task: Interaction of Light and Matter
Ranking Task: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Ranking Task: Atomic Energy Levels and Photons
Process of Science: The Solar Spectrum
Which of the following procedures would allow you to make a spectrum of t
Ranking Task: Velocity Curves for Stars with a Single Orbiting Planet
The following four graphs show the velocities, toward and away from Earth, of four identical stars.
Assume that all four stars have extrasolar planets orbiting them at the same d
Ranking Task: Reflecting Telescopes and Light Collection
Sorting Task: Characteristics of Reflecting and Refracting Telescopes
Ranking Task: Light Absorption in Earths Atmosphere
Visual Activity: Atmospheric Absorption of Light at Different Wavelengths
Practice 27: Questions about the Extrasolar Planets
What is an extrasolar planet?
a planet that orbits a star that is not our own Sun
The first confirmed detections of extrasolar planets occurred in _.
Why do we say that the Doppler technique gi
Visual Activity Exploring the Formation of Comet Structures
A comet entering the inner solar system from afar will _.
form a coma and some time later form a tail
The coma consists of dust and gas released from the comet as it is heated by t
Process of Science: Tidal Heating
Io experiences tidal heating primarily because _.
Io's elliptical orbit causes the tidal force on Io to vary as it orbits Jupiter
The strength of the tidal force depends on Io's distance from Jupiter, so th
Seasons 1: What Is the Cause of the Seasons?
To understand the basic cause of the seasons and address a common misconception by showing that
seasons are not related to Earth's varying distance from the Sun.
Introduction. Earths orbit around
Process of Science: Modifying the Nebular Theory
Based on what we know about our own solar system, the discovery of hot Jupiters came as a
surprise to scientists because these planets are _.
so close to their stars
Hot Jupiters are jovian p
According to current evidence, Pluto is best explained as _.
a large member of the Kuiper belt
What does Pluto most resemble?
Which have the most elliptical and tilted orbits?
Oort cloud comets
Which are thought to have formed farthest from the Su
Jovian Planet Compositions and Densities
Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the
four jovian planets?
Jupiter and Saturn have compositions that are fairly different from the compositions of Uran
A rock found on Earth that crashed down from space is called _.
The asteroid belt is located _.
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
A typical meteor is created by a particle about the size of a _.
The asteroid belt lies between the orbi
Observations show that interstellar clouds can have almost any shape and, if they are rotating at
all, their rotation is not perceptible. However, as shown in the animation, the nebular theory
predicts that a cloud will rotate rapidly once it shrin
Which of the following is a general
characteristic of the four jovian planets in
our solar system?
Which of the following best describes the
internal layering of Jupiter, from the center
They are lower in average density than are the
Practice 18: Climate Change Tutorials
The average temperature over the past 1000 years has been about 15C. From the graphs, you can conclude that Earth's average
temperature during the past 400,000 years has _.
varied between about 7C and 19C