A reference group is any person or group that serves as a point of comparison for
an individual forming either general or specific values, attitudes, or a specific
guide for behaviour
Its a valuable perspective for understan
Behaviour can precede/follow attitude formation
Cognitive dissonance theory
Discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts
about a belief or product.
Eg. After a down payment/order has been made for a product, consumer thinks
Consumer Attitude Formation & Change
What Are Attitudes?
Assess attitudes by asking questions or making inferences from behaviour
(they are not directly observable).
If a consumer consistently buys, recommends the product, we are likely to
infer that t
PERSONALITY AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Mkters have long tried to appeal to consumers (conss) in terms of their
What, when + how conss purchase are influenced by personality factors
Therefore specific personality traits / character
Culture is the sum total of beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct the
consumer behavior of members of a particular society
SOCIALIZATION OF FAMILY MEMBERS
A central family function that involves imparting basic values and modes of behaviour
to children including, morals, religion, dress and grooming and interpersonal skills,
PERSONALITY AND UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER
[use trait measures of personality to expand understanding of cons behav]
How personality influences consump behav helps understand, segment + tgt cons
CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS & RELATED PERSONALITY TRAITS
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
each have played a prominent role in the study of the rel btwn cons behav + personality
1. FREUDIAN THEORY
Psychoanalytical theory of personality: conerstone of modern psych
Built on premise that unconscious needs / drivers, esp se
Marketers segment by cultural factors and they also segment overall
societies into smaller subgroups called subcultures
Consist of people who are similar in terms or ethnic origin, customs and
the way they behave
Structural Models of Attitudes
Understand relationship between attitudes and behaviour.
4 models: the tricomponent attitude model, the multiattribute attitude models, the
trying-to-consume model & the attitude-towards-the-ad model.
Strategies of Attitude Change
What is true for attitude formation is also true for attitude change (learned, influenced
by personal experience & other sources of info, & personality).
Altering consumer attitudes is a key strategy consideration for most ma
The division of members of society into a hierarchy of distinct status classes, so
that members of each class have relatively the same status and members of all
other classes have either more or less status.
SELF AND SELF-IMAGE IN ADVERTISING
Self-images / perceptions closely related w/personality: inds tend to buy prods + services
whose images / personalities relate in some meaningful way to own self-images
ie cons depict themselves in brand choices