Amendment of the Cth Constitution
There are seven ways to change the Constitution
By an amendment Bill passed by both Houses of Parliament and approved at a
By the transfer of powers from States to the Cth under s.51(xxxvii)
By the creation
Lecture 2 6/03/13
Part A: Persuasion
Agreeing to a request from someone who does not have the authority to
make you obey
i.e. agreeing to a request
How can you make somebody do something they dont have to do?
Lecture 4 20/03/13
Part A: Prejudice and Stereotyping
> Stereotypes and subtypes
> How sexism has changed across time
> Benevolent vs. hostile sexism
> Old fashioned vs. aversive racism
> Racism as automatic cognitions
ASSIGNMENTS OF PROPERTY
An assignment is the immediate transfer of an existing property right, vested or
contingent from assignor to assignee Norman v FCT (Windeyer J 
Is the property pre-existing or an expectancy?
An expectancy can only
Week 8: Social Process theories & control theories:
Shared assumptions of social process theories:
Human beings are best understood in relation to their environment.
Social processes lead to crime.
But, not everyone who is exposed to the same social/st
Diversionary conferencing; Restorative Justice
Critiques of Labelling theory:
Some question a few of the core assumptions
I.e., no act is intrinsically criminal/deviant.
Does the label affect the behaviour or does the behaviour drive the label?
Used the Danish Penal Registrar to determine if one or both twins had become criminal.
Male identical twinswhere at least one twin sentenced, other twin sentenced 36%
of timehigher concordance rate.
Male fraternal twinswhere at least one twin was sentenc
Criminal behaviour is learned both in non-social situations and through that social
The environment itself can reinforce criminality.
Akers: Sources of learning:
Retains Sutherlands arguments about the patterns of
Women more likely to know their assailant
81% of female victims of assault knew the offender, compared with 49% of male
25% of all homicides (where the offender is known) involve present or past
intimates partner. Men kill women in most of these
The social disorganisation concept has persisted over time.
New approaches include:
Bursik and Grasmicks, Neighbourhood Systemic Control Theory.
Sampson and colleagues - Collective Efficacy Theory.
Community Ties & Informal Social Control:
Sampson & Gr
Please note that LIFT does not warrant the correctness of the materials contained within the notes. Additionally, in some cases, these
notes were created for previous semesters and years. Courses are subject to change over time, both in content and scope
The big debate about Age-Crime:
The agecrime curve is invariant:
changes to crime rates due to changes in frequency.
number of offenders stays the same but each offender
commits fewer offences.
All offenders and offences have the same age
Media is the main vehicle by which people come to know about issues relating to crime and
Media plays a role in constructing the social identification/depiction of victims, criminals and
the capacity of the criminal justice system.
Importance of marriage and job stability.
What questions does this theory raise?:
Hirschis focus was on trivial delinquencycan it be extended to more serious types of
How can we explain that some criminals have very strong attachments to family