Water contains far less oxygen than air does. It also
contains way more CO2 than air. So how do animals in
water extract sufficient amounts of O2 without also
extracting lethal amounts of CO2 at the same time?
l . (a) Organisms must modify existing structures to meet new functional needs they cannot make something from nothing.
Any relevant example will Serve. i.e., the trans formation of the hyomandibular element from the epibranchial of arch 2 -> a jaw-
2012 Second Midtenn Key
I. Food items are broken up both mechanically and chemically. Mechanical reduction results from chewing and from grinding by
the heavily muscular stomach (in some animals containing rocks); chemical reduction is nearly all
Second Midterm Exam, 2012
Please use a new page for each numbered question. If you are not sure what a question includes, ask for
1. Digestion involves increasing the SN ratios of both food and the absorptive regions of the
First Midterm Key 2012
1. (a) Segmentation is a functional requirement for animals that swim by bending their bodies; the axial skeleton and trunk muscles
divide into a series of blocks (vertebrae and myotomes), and somatic nerves and blood vesse
First Midterm, 2012
Note: Please use a new page for each numbered question. If you are not sure what a question is about, ask
1. Describe and explain the functional advantages that arise for (a) segmentation (as seen in t
EEMB 108 Final Exam Key 2012
1. These are nonganglionated cranial nerves that should carry only somatic motor (SM) function, following the 3: 1 routing
pattern of cranial nerves. Each should be associated with a somite. By inspection we see that nerves II
Final score - - -1140
Course total - - - - -
Please use a new page for each numbered question. As always, it is important to read and understand each
question before you begin writing. More points are lost from misreadin
(uuvw w w". a. .5.
the stapes, which transfer sound to the inner ear. The Eustachian
tube connects to the nasopban/998l Cavity and functions to equalize
pressure. The inner ear houses structures for hearing and balance
EEMB 108 Lab 7
Rabbit Lab: intro and Muscles
Are these plantigrade, dlgitigrade, or ungullgrade?
The forelimb or pectoral appendage is divided into the brachlum. antebracmum and ma
The hindlimb or pelvic appendage is divided into the femur, CNS
Categories of somatic/skeletal muscle (see Table 7-1)
1. Trunk and Tail represent the bulk of sh musculature
' epaxial (dorsal) and hypaxial (ventral) muscles . a
0 red bers: contain lots of myoglobm; aerobic metabolism
Teleost (bony) fish:
1. What are the function of the long dorsal and ventral processes of the vertebrate?
2. Where are the ribs present and absent?
3. How are dorsal and ventral fins tied into the vertebral coloumn
4. Where are the pelvic and pecto
function of this system
transportation (gases, butrients,
ions, wastes, hormones, cells,
buffering (pH, temperature,
reduce size of food