An argument begs the question when it assumes the point to be proved. Example: The defendant is not guilty of the crime, for she is innocent of having committed it. This argument is unconvincing the conclusion is just a restatement of t
Straw Man Fallacy. Layman 4.1.2
This fallacy occurs when an arguer A argues that another person B is wrong about something. But A doesnt present Bs actual view (or argument) but a distortion of it. A argues that this distorted view (argument) is wrong, pe
An argument is valid if and only if its necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true. An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and has all true premises. An argument is strong if and only if its probable (but not neces
Midterm Study Guide.
Be able to define and utilize the following concepts:
Arguments vs. Explanations
Standard Form of an Argu
Phil 3- January 19
Warm Up (Zenos Paradoxes)
Counterexamples (proving invalidity)
Achilles sets out to race a tortoise. Obviously, Achilles is
much faster than the tortoise, so he s
*Conclude the consequent (If A then B. A, therefore B )
1.(R v P) -> (C & D)
2.(R v P)
3.(C & D) [1,2 MP]
*Conclude a NEGATED consequent (If A then B. Not B, so therefore not A)
Determine whether the following arguments are valid or invalid. If an
invalid, provide a formal counterexample.
If an argument is valid, show its form.
(1) If the weather outside is hot, then milk was a bad choice
think critically u dumbfuks
The necessary and sufficient conditions under which something
counts as an instance of some type of thing or phenomena.
o Necessary conditions:
The conditions an instance of some kind of thing or
What to know
Arguments by Analogy
An argument that infers from certain similarities between two
things, another similarity
o Certain similarities are evidence that there is another
o P1) A has characteristic X.
o P2) B has ch
Theorems are statements that can be proved without any premises. Theorems are tautologies (and conversely). They are true just in virtue of their logical form. Thus any argument that has a theorem as its conclusion will be valid. Example: Grass
Phil 3- January 17
Jason will be changing his office hours to T and R from 11am to 12pm due to a conflict after
class. Appointments are available as well if this does not work.
The first quiz is now active, it is due before midnight on Sunda
PHIL 3- JANUARY 27
In general, there is a degree of doubt, and caution, and
modesty, which, in all kinds of scrutiny and decision, ought
for ever to accompany a just reasoner. David Hume
Warm Up: The Problem of Induction
We use induction every day. Our be
UC Santa Barbara | Winter 2016
Table of Contents
1. Recognizing Arguments
2. Evaluating Arguments
3. Implication and Equivalence
4. Introduction to Propositional Logic
4. Introduction to Propositional Logic
I. Propositional Logic
Propositional logic takes statements or propositions as _
and examines the _
between them. It breaks statements up into
their component statements and con
8. Inductive Fallacies
I. Introduction to Informal Fallacies
A fallacy is an error in reasoning. It is more than simply a false premise or conclusion of
an argument. Fallacious arguments rely on an _
Fallacies based on personal attacks/
Ad hominem Abusive- the fallacy is distinguished by an attack on argumentors flaws
instead of the argument
Ex) she is old therefore she probably isnt up to date and modern
Ad hominem circumstantial- when somones argume
Chapter 1: Introducing Arguments
Attempts to persuade:
o By argument and by other means (rhetorical devices)
Argumentto attempt to persuade by giving good reasons
o Appeals to your reason
RhetoricAny attempt to persuade
Phil 3- January 31
Say I enter you into a million ticket raffle.
You should believe that your ticket isnt a winner (1 in a million shot).
For any individual ticket the same odds apply.
So you should believe that any given ticket is a loser
Monarchy & the Divine in
S.E. Asia: Gupta India &
January 18, 2017/Hist 2B
What are the sources for kingdoms like
Largely archeological: inscriptions, t
Phil 3- January 24
Warm Up: Pop Quiz!
Practice Counter Examples
Next Week there Will be a Surprise Quiz
However, Im not going to tell you when Ill post it on Gauchospace.
You will not be able to know that Ill post the test on Gauchosp
PHIL 3 FEBRUARY 2
I will hold extra office hours Sunday 10 to 12pm (In SH 5617).
Damien will hold his on Monday 7pm-8pm in HFH 1104 (this will
replace his section).
Argument from Outrage
Popularity, Peer-Pressure, and
We left off talking about how to use CP to derive biconditionals and disjunctions. To derive a biconditional p q, use conditional proof to derive p q and qp. Then conjoin the conditionals and use ME: p q : (p q) (q p).
Appeal to Unreliable Authority
Although on many occasions, it is reasonable to believe something on someone else's sayso, it is not always. An appeal to unreliable authority occurs when an arguer cites as good evidence for a conclusion C the fact that som
Jonathan Way SH 5717 [email protected] MW 11-12 www.philosophy.ucsb.edu/website/ph.13 1st midterm-20%-April 21 2nd midterm-30%-May 14 Final-40% HW-10%-every week, posted on Monday-due the next Monday-based on textbook, completeness not accuracy Le
My interpretation of the Allegory of the Cave pertains primarily to the dual nature of knowledge. Plato's Greek allegory describes prisoners whose reality was limited to what they could hear and see from the confines of their chains. Thus, what they
Q/A 12/05 The Last Storyteller Q: Based on what has been revealed so far, do you think Taite will decide to keep the baby? A: It's obviously too soon to make a detailed & accurate prediction of how that will all turn out but it's never too soon to
Q/A 11/16 Always Outnumbered & Always Outgunned Q: Was it a good idea for Socrates not to include his status of being arrested on his application for Bounty? Should he have accepted the job at Iula's Diner instead?
A: In the end, I feel like that