Hints for Cashinahua (Panoan family, Peru and Brazil)
This problem gives additional practice with template systems. Do a full morphological analysis, including one template for the verbs. Pay careful attention to the symbols, because some look almost alik
Ling 115: Historical Linguistics
Grimms Law- a chain shift:
b > b > p > (in English)
Aspirated stops > non aspirated stops > voiceless stops > fricatives
*p t k> f h
*b d g> p t k
*b d g > b d g
Apocope*maneki > manek
Loss of a segment at the end of a wor
Collective: specify unity or solidarity of members of a group or concerted action. Ex: handful, a
bunch of, pack of dogs
Associative: basically means and + 3rd person ex: and his friend, and them
Ordinal Numbers: Rank
Describe this sound change:
paktem > pattem (local, total, regressive, place assimilation)
sanapi > sanabi (lenition or voicing assimilation)
kesim > kehim (lenition)
fala > pala (fortition)
What is a sound reflex?
The descendant sound of one in a proto-l
What are the circumstances that must be in place for us to posit drift?
1. Must be phonetically plausible
2. Must have evidence that these 2 languages are from separate subgroups
Name a challenge to the traditional family tree model of classification and
Overt Gender- when the word is marked for feminine or masculine
Transitive- Has two core argument (Subject and Object)
Intransitive- Has one core argument (Subject and no obejct)
Infinitive: Nonconjugated form of a verb
Ling 108: Morphology
New lexemes that are formed with prefixes and suffixes on a base are often referred to as derived
words, and the process by which they are formed as derivation;
Word formation rule, a rule which makes explicit all the categorical, sem
Components of grammaticalization:
1. Limitation of context
2. Semantic bleaching (frequency of 2 words being used together increases)
3. Phonological reduction
What is analogy? (generalization of a pattern from one thing to another)
What is the difference
Derivational Morpheme- the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word,
EX) happiness and unhappy from the root word happy
Morphological Productivity- The extent to which a morphological process can be used to create
What is blending?
A word that incorporates two words together creating a new word EX) Spoon + Fork = Spork
What is clipping/truncation?
Clipping means creating new words by shortening already existing words EX) Info
What is a simplex word? Give an example
The First Revolt : Mary Yee, speaker, to J.P. Harrington during the 1950's
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Luisa was the one who really knew (PAST) how to tell the old time stories. This one happened (PAST) here
Absolute tense They proceeded. They are proceeding. They will proceed. Passengers awaiting flight 217 proceeded to the boarding area. Passengers awaiting flight 217 can proceed to the boarding area. Passengers awaiting flight 217 will proceed to the
Here are a few extra notes about clitics.
The linguist Arnold Zwicky drew a distinction between two kinds of clitics. Simple clitics These are clitics that still have a corresponding separate word in the language (a free form). The c
In some languages, clitics can occur with a variety of constituents. Their domain tends to be the constituent they pertain to. Common floating clitics are negatives, question markers, and topic or focus markers for emphasis, etc.
The compounding of a noun stem and a verb stem to form a new verb.
2. Manipulation of argument structure
Incorporation can be used to ensure that the most important participants are core arguments: Subjects and Objects, etc.
iko?cpa aIJko?cpa iIJwaspa ikovcne ako vcum iwasneyahum anko ?cta ?mpa miwasum iwasyahpa awasneyahum awasneta ?mum miko ?cta ?mum iIJwasta ?mpa anko ?cneum iIJko?cne miwasneyah iIJwasyahum anwasneyah .
He is hitting I am hitting
Michoacan Az tec 1- nokali my house my houses your house his house house "houses my dog your dog 9. mopelomes your dogs
2. nokalimes 3. mokali 4. ikali 5. kali
10. ipelo 11. pelo 12. nokwahmili 13. mokwahmili 14. ikwahmili 15. ikwahmilimes 16.