for two-dimensional
inverse heat conduction
problems using Laplace
transform,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,
Vol. 46, 2135-2148
Shoji M. (1978). Study of
inverse problem of heat
conduction, Transactions of
Japan Society of
Mechanical Engineering,
series B, V
action of a catalyst, which
is a suitable characteristic
for long-term
accumulation. Other
advantages of
thermochemical
accumulation include the
possibility of transporting
the
products over long
distances, the possibility
of product storage at both
low (
apparatus used is shown in
Fig. 6. It includes a boiling
vessel and a heating block.
The
heating block is made of
copper and is peripherally
insulated. The heating
block is
composed of two parts,
upper and lower. The
image of the upper part is
shown in Fi
for the heating block and
the exact solution
calculated from Eq. (1)
with h1 = 2 mm is used
as the input data. h1 = 2
mm represents the depth
at which the temperature
sensor is placed.
As shown in the figure, the
agreement between the
sine waves of the ac
IHCP to obtain the surface
heat flux and surface
temperature by using the
measured inner
block temperature data as
input. For the inner block
temperature
measurement, special
Ttype
temperature sensors with
a common positive pole
were introduced. By using
and temperature on the
boundary in detail, we
need to solve the twodimensional IHCP,
which requires the
temperature sensors to
have a high spatial
resolution.
We therefore introduced
special micron-sized
thermocouples that share
a single positive
pole (En
The temperature sensors
are thus of the T-type. The
common positive pole can
be formed by
using a film-formation
technique - such as
sputtering - after the
constantan wires are set
into
the copper block. The
thickness of the sputtering
film can be control
Neto, O. O. D. & Vilar, R.
(2002). Physicalcomputational model to
describe the interaction
between a laser beam and
a powder jet in laser
surface processing, Journal
of Laser
Applications 14: 4651.
Polmear, I. J. (1989). Light
Alloys, Edward Arnold.
Qian,
temperature data. In other
words,
the introduction of the
IHCP enables us to derive
the boundary conditions,
which include
both surface heat flux and
surface temperature,
without necessitating the
use of a sensor on
the surface of interest.
2.1 Inverse he
Finite Element Method,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
Company.
Deus, A. M. & Mazumder, J.
(2006). Three-dimensional
finite element models for
the
calculation of temperature
and residual stress fields
in laser cladding,
Proceedings
of ICALEO 2006-25th
International
block (Cu) V4+
-V3+
-V2+
-V1+
Constantan wire
Common pole , Cu
Fig. 4. Schematic
illustration of the special
micron-sized T-type
thermocouples that share
a
single positive pole
Measurement of Boundary
Conditions - Surface Heat
Flux and Surface
Temperature
Journal of Materials
Processing Technology
178: 135142.
Boyer, R., Welsch, G. &
Coolings, E. W. (1994).
Materials Properties
Handbook : titanium alloys,
ASM International.
Brunette, D. M. (2001).
Titanium in Medicine,
Springer.
Costa, L., Vilar, R., Reti,
Surface Heat Flux and
Surface Temperature
Wei Liu
Japan Atomic Energy
Agency
Japan
1. Introduction
In order to understand a
heat transfer phenomenon,
it is sometimes very
important to know
the change in heat flux and
temperature with time or
the distribut
Shi, L.P. 2006).
Accumulators will facilitate
power take-off during any
time period
depending on the needs of
the consumer or the power
system operator, which
provides for
the balance in the
cost/power take-off
relation within the
required time interval.
steels, Acta Metallurgica 7:
5960.
Labudovich, M., Hu, D. &
Kovacevic, R. (2003). A
three dimensional model
for direct laser
metal powder deposition
and rapid prototyping,
Journal ofMaterials Science
38: 3549.
Laeng, J., Stewart, J. G. &
Liou, F. W. (2000
Fig. 1. A photovoltaic
power plant design, the
Czech Republic
One of the applicable
alternative source
solutions consist in
utilizing solar radiation
( Solar
energy, 2010) within its
entire spectrum. Among
the advantages of this
energy harvesting
method t
F. at al. 2010, Shi, L.P.; at
al. 2006). These are mostly
coupled tasks (Fiala,P.
December 1998).
Within the specification of
different aspects of the
solution process, emphasis
will be placed
on the final accuracy of the
results of numerical
analyses, an
available computer
technology. This
dynamic development
influenced a large number
of problems including the
description of
physical behaviour of nontrivial tasks. Non-linear
models are solved in the
material,
spatial, and time domains.
However, certain no
on the surface, which may
be a disturbance to the
phenomenon itself
occurring on the surface.
This chapter introduces a
technique for the
measurement of surface
temperature and surface
heat flux.
2. Technique for the
measurement of surface
temperature and
Reddy, J. N. & Gartling, D.
K. (1994). The Finite
Element Method in Heat
Transfer and Fuid
Dynamics, CRC Press.
R.Vilar (1999). Laser
cladding, Journal of Laser
Applications 11(2): 6479.
R.Vilar (2001). Laser
cladding, International
Journal of Powder
Meta
350
society are limited.
Moreover, such
classification applies also
to the possibilities of
utilizing
the energy of water and
wind.
A large number of
countries have committed
themselves to the
reduction of greenhouse
gas
emissions and the related
increase
accumulation. The first
method consists in the
utilization of specific
thermal capacity of
substances (sensible heat),
the second one is built on
the application of change
in the state of
substances (latent heat) ,
the third one lies in the
thermochemical
of titanium, Proceedings of
ICALEO 2006-25th
International Congress on
Applications of
Lasers and Electro-Optics,
Scottsdale, Arizona, pp.
10161021.
Crespo, A., Deus, A. M. &
Vilar, R. (2008). Modeling
of phase transformations
and internal
stresses in las
focused more intensively
on the problem of
increasing the share of
renewable sources of
energy in total energy
consumption per capita
(Solar energy 2010). In this
context, we have
seen major development in
the field of energy
harvesting (Murat
Kenisarin,
in Engineering 41: 849
867.
Vasinonta, A., Beuth, J. L.
& Grifith, M. (2001). A
process map for consistent
build conditions
in the solid freeform
fabrication of thin-walled
structures, Journal of
Manufacturing
Science and Engineering Transactions of the A
heating block. Thus, the
temperature
sensors must be located as
close as possible to the
surface of interest. If a
sinusoidal heat flux
boundary q0(t) is
imposed on one surface of
a one-dimensional solid
with initial
temperature T0 and the
other surface i
recommended by
Woodfield, if the Fourier
number 2 at 0.1
H
< , where H is the
thickness of
the heating block, then for
practical use, the block can
be treated as being semiinfinite.
Further, note that the thin
copper film, which acts as
the common pole of
Katzarov, I., Malinov, S. &
Sha, W. (2002). Finite
element modeling of the
morphology of
beta to alpha phase
transformation in Ti-6Al-4V
alloy, Metallurgical and
Materials
Transactions A 33: 1027
1040.
Kelly, S. & Kampe, S.
(2004a). Microstructural
evolut
the properties in Ti-6Al-4V
produced by rapid
manufacturing processes
6.1 Future work
The model can be easily
modified to describe the
microstructural
transformations of other Ti
alloys. In the case of /
alloys these modifications
simply amount to changin
first place. Traditional
materials applied for the
accumulation of heat are
water and gravel.
Convection and Conduction
Heat Transfer
352
The weight and specific
heat capacity of these
materials indicate the
accumulable quantity of
heat. This quantity is