MCDB 1B: Animal Physiology Outline
Chapter 41: Animal Hormones What are hormones and how do they work? Hormones are chemical messages that allow slow communication between distant cells in the body They act on a time scale of several seconds to days can c
MCDB 1B Course Information, Winter 2010
MCDB 1B MCDB 1B is an introduction to: Animal Physiology by Dr. Seng Hui Low (LSB, Rm. 2111, [email protected]) Plant (and Animal) Physiology by Dr. Ruth Finkelstein (Bio II, Rm. 2127, [email protected]
MCDB 1B: Plant Physiology Outline
Circulatory Systems Purpose of Circulatory System transport nutrients, respiratory gases, hormones, metabolic products, etc. throughout the body temperature control Structural elements of circulatory systems: pump (heart)
Introduction to plants!
-Overview of plant biology!
-Overview of plant architecture!
-cellular differences from animals!
!- cell wall: structure and implications !
-overview of anatomy!
!-tissue types, organization!
Why study plants?!
Vascular system: water and mineral movement!
Site of movement (xylem)!
Driving force for movement = water potential
Path of water movement through plant!
Control of stomatal aperture!
Key concepts: !
apoplast vs. symplast!
Salt and water balance and Nitrogen Excretion!
Salt and water balance!
-overview of excretory systems
-purpose = filtration and maintain osmotic balance
!-structure/function of parts
Key concepts: !
There are millions of B- and T-cells and each make
different antibodies and T-cell receptors, respectively.
! How are the correct B and T cells selected to mount
an immune response? clonal selection
! Why dont antibodies and T ce
MCDB 1B 1/11
mucus in the digestive system serves both as lubrication and to protect epithelial cells from
damage due to digestive enzymes
hydrolytic enzymes- break down/hydrolyze protein, carbohydrate, and fat macromolecules
o ex: carbohydrases hydrolyze
MCDB 1B 1/8
Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption
o animals are heterotrophs (obtain nutrients by eating other organisms)
o plants and some bacteria/protists are autotrophs (use solar energy through photosynthesis)
o food chain: sun producer primary consu
Animal Defense Systems
!Humans are nutritious and taste good !
. to pathogens ! infectious
disease to host
single-cell eukaryotic parasites (yeast)
Friday, March 3, 2017
Plant Lecture 1
Introduction to Plants
Why study plants?
Overview of plant biology
Unity of biology: genomics approaches
Overview of plant architecture
Friday, March 3, 2017
Salt and Water Balance; Nitrogen Excretion
Salt and Water Balance
Overview of excretory systems
Purpose - filtration and maintain osmotic balance
Structure and function of par
Monday, January 9, 2017
How cells communicate with each other via electrical signals through the nervous system
Irisin - converts white fat into brown fat, secreted when muscles are exercising
Coined the name cell
o From observing the dead bark of the cork oak
o Was actually observing cell walls
Plants and some bacteria have cell walls
Cork cell walls made of cellulose polymer of glucose
MCDB 1B 1/13
digestion of fats:
o bile acids- disperse large lipid drops into micelles to increase the surface area of the fat
bile acids have a lipophilic end and a lipophobic end
lipases then hydrolyze (break down) fats into diglycerides, monogly
MCDB 1B 1/6
there are 9 endocrine glands:
o pituitary gland- link between nervous system and other endocrine glands
small, located at base of hypothalamus in brain
2 parts: (both connected to hypothalamus by portal blood vessels)
MCDB 1B 1/4
Animal and Plant Physiology
1st half: Animal physiology, Dr. Seng Hui Low
2nd half: Plant/animal physiology, Dr. Ruth Finklestein
one midterm, one final (multiple choice)
o both have equal weight
o FINAL IS NOT CUMULATIVE
Animals are heterotrophs: They must obtain their nutrition by eating other organisms. Most plants, some bacteria, and some protists are autotrophs: They trap solar energy through photosynthesis and use that energy to synthesiz
Lab starts this week already. Attend or be dropped Text Karla Paulson and Emily Bishop will be at the back after lecture with add codes.
Come to lectures Study consistently! Study! Study! Study!
Endocrine cells: cells that secrete hormones
Hormones are chemical signals secreted by cells of the endocrine system.
Target cells: cells that have receptors for the hormones
-> E N -> E N
Circulating hormones diffuse into the blood and ca
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. to pathogens !
Animal Defense Systems
Humans are nutritious and taste good !
Possible pathogens: viruses bacteria single-cell eukaryotic parasites (yeast) parasitic worms maggots
lions? (usually not considered pathogens)
Natural Defenses against D
Plants are successful on Earth
big (100m tall), long life span (10,000 years)
Plants are important to humans Primary Producers
Food for all consumers
Lecture 4 Basic Plant Architecture Photosynthesis
Source of polymers and chemicals
Phloem Transport Control of plant growth and development
Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid Ethylene Auxin Cytokinins
Site and direction of movement Driving force for movement = pressure ow
Summary of C fixation
Photorespiration C4, CAM photosynthesis Plant nutrition Transport of nutrients
3 steps of Calvin cycle:
1) carboxylation 2) reduction/sugar production 3) regeneration of RuBP
Takes 6 turns of cycle to make 1 sugar
The Circulatory System Go over: blood clotting system: open circulatory system extracellular fluid mixes with interstitial fluid (continuous fluid), no vessels, movement of the organism moves the fluid, less efficient than a closed system closed circulato
MCDB 1B Animal/Plant Physiology
Brown fat is metabolically more active than white fat (helps you to not
put on weight)
More brown fat, inversely proportional to body mass
Anabolic steroids misuse
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AA