developing the nuclear deterrence in 1972 in a view to
prevent any foreign invasion; the country's first nuclear power
plant was inaugurated, also the same year.Accelerated in
response to first nuclear test by India in 1974, this cr
Cold Desert, Skardu is world's highest desert
Clifton Beach, Karachi
Flora and fauna
Main articles: Flora of Pakistan and Fauna of Pakistan
Deodar,[b] Pakistan's national tree.
The diversity of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows a
wide variety of
Swansea Cycling Map
2 "And the most beautiful beach in
Britain is.". The Travel Magazine. 27
February 2007. Retrieved 27
3 ^ McCracken, Matthew (13 July
2007). "10 sandy beaches". London h:
The Guardian. Retrieved 27
4 ^ "The 50
; all of the branches joint works, coordination, military logistics,
and joint missions are under the Joint Staff HQ. The Joint Staff
HQ is composed of the Air HQ, Navy HQ, and Army GHQ in the
vicinity of the Rawalpindi Military District.
1 "CTC- (Cyclist Touring Club) Swansea
and West Wales Member Group".
2 ^ Visit Swansea Bay Golf
3 ^ "Swansea Leisure Centre to shut".
BBC News. 13 November 2003.
Retrieved 26 July2007.
4 ^ "Swansea's New Leisure Centre".
City and County of Swansea. 2007.
Main articles: Economy of Pakistan and Economic history of
Centre Point Tower, Karachi
Economists estimate that Pakistan has been part of the
wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE
having the largest ec
G20 developing nations, ECOSOC, founding member of
the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, SAARC and CERN.
o 2.1Early and medieval ageEtymology
The name Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure"
in Urdu and Persian. I
oint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited
to the relevant province or territory. The National Intelligence
Directoratecoordinates the information intelligence at both federal
and provincial level; including the FIA, IB, Moto
Free Trade Agreement in the 2000s, and Pakistan continues to
central government of Pakistan.
Islamabad Capital Territory
A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan
Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi),
approximately equal to the combined land areas of France and
the United Kingdom. It is the 36th largest nation by total area,
although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed
territory of K
as of 2016 is US$271 billion making it the 41st largest in the
world and second largest in South Asia representing about 15.0%
of regional GDP. The GDP by PPP is US$838,164
million. The estimated nominal per capita
GDP is US$1,197, GDP
sector, accounting for 66% of the sectoral share, followed by
Small Scale Manufacturing, which accounts for 4.9 percent of
total GDP. Pakistan's cement industry is also fast growing mainly
because of demand from Afghanistan and from the domestic real
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four
provinces and four federal territories. It is
an ethnically and linguisticallydiverse country, with a similar
variation in its geography and wildlife. A regional and middle
Baltistan have separate court systems.
Foreign relations of Pakistan
Main article: Foreign relations of Pakistan
Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) with US President John F.
Kennedy in 1961.
As the Muslim world's second most populous nationstate (after In
the defence of Saudi Arabia.
Since 2004, the military has been engaged in a war in North-West
Pakistan, mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions.
Major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation
Black Thunderstorm and Operati
. Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM), at 12.2 percent of GDP,
dominates the overall
Services Sector has 57.7 percent share in GDP and has emerged
as the main driver of economic growth. Pakistani society like
other developing countries is a consumption o
attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world,
notably K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 ft) and Nanga Parbat (8,126 m or
26,660 ft). The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and
the Thar Desert in the east. The 1,609 km (1,000 mi) Indus River
severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively
made an arm of British administration, the Company began to
more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education,
social reform, and culture. Such reforms included the
UN's General Assembly asked Pakistan to remove most of its
troops as aplebiscite would then be held. However, Pakistan
failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in 1949
with the Line of Control(LoC) was established, dividing Kashmir
The disputed regions of Azad Kashmir and
, calling its program vital nuclear deterrence against foreign
President of Iran Hassan Rouhani in conversation with Prime
Minister Nawaz Sharif in January 2016.
Located in strategic a
Pakistan sent UN
so, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture
Organization, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat
in 2005, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and
nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metr
, CPFTA, Group of 24, the
Hindus and Muslims. The Hindu renaissance witnessed the
awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the
emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political
spheres in British India.
of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar
Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort.
In October 2006, just one year after the 2005 Kashmir
earthquake, The Guardian released what it described as "The top
five tourist sites in Pakist
expenses. Major seaports are in Karachi, Sindh (theKarachi
port and Port Qasim). Since the 1990s, some seaport
operations have been moved to Balochistan with the construction
of Gwadar Port and Gadani Port.According to Mundi Index,
passed in 1948, the
The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form
part of the Police Service, which is a component of the civil
service of Pakistan. Namely, there are four provincialpolice
service including the Punjab Police, Sin
dry and moist broadleaf
5,000 species of invertebrates (including insects) have been
recorded in Pakistan.
The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems.
Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the
forestry as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests
are mostly of mulberry, acacia, andeucalyptus. About 2.2% or
1,687,000 hectares (16,870 km2) of Pakistan was forested in
The fauna of Pakistan reflects its varied climates to
Head of State: The President who is elected
women and religious minorities are allocated
to the political parties according to their
proportional representation. Senate
members are elected by provincial
legislators, with all of provinces have equal
, Shaheen Air International, and Air Indus, also provide the similar
services with low cost
In chemistry, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani
scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the neem tree to
the attention of na
Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the
Yugoslav wars. During the war, Pakistan supported Bosnia while
providing technical and military support. Approximately 90,000
Pakistani people went to Bosnia during the Yugoslav wars,