Derive expressions for the time averaged energy density for the electric and magnetic
field as well as the time averaged Poynting vector. You will need to start from
conservation of energy in small volume element in
Polarization and optical activity:
Describe completely the state of polarization of each of the following waves and
write it in the matrix form.
E ( z , t ) = i cos (t ) + j cos t E0 sin (
Referring back to the multiple antenna system on p.451 (Hecht), compute the
angular separation between successive lobes or principal maxima and the width of
the central maximum.
A collimated beam of microwaves impinges on a
1. The equation for a driven damped oscillator is
m x + m x + m02 x = mqE ( t )
Considering a bound electron as an oscillator,
(a) Explain the significance of each term.
(b) Let E ( t ) = E0 exp ( it ) and the trial solution, x ( t ) = x0 ex
Scattering, Interference and Coherence:
Work your way through an argument using dimensional analysis to establish the 4
dependence of the percentage of light scattered in Raleigh Scattering.
A white floodlight beam crosses a large volum
Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Optics:
What is the electric field experienced by an electron in a hydrogen atom?
Show that the maximum electric-field intensity, Emax that exists for a given
irradiance I is Emax
As you drive by an AM radio station, you notice a sign saying that its antenna is 112 m
high. If this height represents one quarter-wavelength of its signal, what is the frequency
of the station?
What is your favorite FM radio stations frequ
Expectation value of the quadrupole operator
The electric quadrupole moment of a nuclear state is defined as the
expectation value of Q op in the substate of maximum M.
Qd JM J Q op JM J
Q op e(3 z 2 r 2 )
er 2 (3cos2 1)
er Y20 ( , )
Allowed and Forbidden transitions
The emission of the electron or positron from the nucleus is hindered by
the Coulomb and angular momentum barriers
(similar to the case for the -decay)
Minimum hinderance when
angular momentum for electron/positron
(e ) 0
H d Ed d
d a 3 S1 b 3 D1
H11 3S1 H 3S1
H22 3D1 H 3D1
H12 H21 3D1 H 3S1
In order to have a non-vanishing off diagonal matrix elements, the
potential V must have a component (Vtens
Ground and excited states of nuclei
A nucleus is a complicated structure of interacting nucleons.
An appropriate quantum mechanical Hamiltonian H can be written
down in terms of nuclear and coulomb interactions.
The Hamiltonian will have a series of eigen
PH 505 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics
Prof. (Mrs.) Pragya Das
Room no. 220 (E), Physics Department
Phone no. 7566 (Ext.)
Class performance 1
A(Z, N) A(Z+1, N-1) + e- + e
n p + e- e
A(Z, N) A(Z-1, N+1) + e+ + e
p n + e+ e
e - + A(Z, N) A(Z-1, N+1) + e
e- + p n e
Orbital electron is captured by the nucleus.
Free neutron decay:
allowed (mn > mp)
Experimental observations and Independent Particle Model
1) All even-even nuclei have ground state spin parity 0+ (without any
(i) Since each of the orbit can have (2j+1) particles of one kind, above
experimental observation says that when we
Types of Decay
1) Nucleon-emission or a cluster of nucleon emission (-decay, for
Decay can occur spontaneously,
Initiated by bombardment with a particle from outside, called nuclear
In the shell-model, we include the residual interaction as H.
The energy eigenstates will be the solution of complete Schrdinger
V ' H '
(H0+V) = E -(2)
where is the wavefunction, a state which is the superposition of s.
(This is beca
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Phase space in quantum mechanics an
Lecture 3: Introduction to
Thermodynamics is a funny subject. The
first time you go through it, you don't
understand it at all. The second time you
go through it, you think you understand it,
except for one or
Lecture 5: The Microcanonical
The set of corresponding microstates form the
Constant Energy Surface
Lecture 4: Phase Space and
Microstate of a system
Complete specification of system: Positions and
velocities of all particles: 6N coordinates
Quantum mechanical microstate: Wavefunction
Macrostate of a syst
As we know, we are at the point where we can deal with almost any classical problem (see below),
but for quantum systems we still cannot deal with problems where the translational degrees of
freedom are described quantum mechanic
Prof. Dr. Roland Netz
Julius Schulz, Klaus Rinne
Exam Solutions: Advanced Statistical Physics
Part II: Problems (75P)
1 Lenoir Cycle (25P)
Consider 1 mol of an ideal gas, which initially has a volume V1 and temperature T1 at pressure p1 . The gas
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See also: Quantum statistical mechanics
A density mat